Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous...

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Chapter 4: Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations We can interpret equations on either a(n) atomic / molecular or molar basis …… the latter allowing a mass basis (!) 4.2 Reaction Stoichiometry - 4.2 Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry The study of the numerical relationship between chemical quantities (moles) in a chemical equation is called stoichiometry Pancake Analogy Making pancakes requires ingredients…. .This relationship can be expressed mathematically. 1 cup flour 2 eggs ½ tsp baking powder 5 pancakes If you want to make more or less than 5 pancakes, you can determine the number of pancakes you can make by considering amounts of ingredients - We write conversion factors from the relationships between the ‘reactants’ and ‘product’ 4.2 Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry The Stoichiometric Coefficients provide a ratio of reactants and products in the reaction with all atoms accounted for……. For this reaction, these amounts (remember that 1 mol is exactly 6.022  1023 particles) of N2, H2, and NH3 are said to be STOICHIOMETRICALLY EQUIVALENT - Conversion factors derived from a stoichiometric equivalence (stoichiometric coefficients) are called mole ratios - mole ratios convert the number of moles of one substance to the corresponding number of moles of another substance in a chemical equation In summary, for a BALANCED chemical equation: They have to be balanced. 4.3 Determining the Limiting Reactant If we make burgers stoichiometrically , nothing is left over… however in many reactions, the reactants are not present in stoichiometric proportions The reactant that is completely consumed in the reaction limits the amounts of products

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous...

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