ans_t1_ch1_lgk_36949_f05

ans_t1_ch1_lgk_36949_f05 - TALLAHASSEE ccuuunny COLLEGE K...

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Unformatted text preview: TALLAHASSEE ccuuunny COLLEGE K EY For we PHl 21cc INTno Lcclc NAME 9 FALL SEMESTER 2cos LAST F RST MR. couo JONES DATE 2| as Neal,- TEST #1 CHAPTER ‘I: HURLE‘I’r 9th ed. THERE ARE ‘IDD POINTS ON THIS TEST. BUT THERE IS GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO EARN EXTRA POINTS. TRY TO BE NEAT SO THAT] CAN READ YOUR WORK. I. [12 points total.] The following passage contains a single argument. Underline the conclusion twice {double underline} and underline each premise once {single underline}. Do not underline any indicator words. either premise indicators or conclusion indicators. lfa piece of information is not “job relevant.” then the employer is not entitled qua employer to know it. Consequently. since se_xual practices. political beliefs. associational activities. etc. are not part of the description of most jobs. that ts. since they do not directly affect one's top performance. they are not legitimate information for an employer to know in the determination of the hiring of a job applicant. ll. [15 points total] Determine which of the following passages are arguments. For those that are. gngerline the conclusion and write “Argument” in the space below the passage. For those that are not. write “Non— argument” in the space below the passage. For extra credit, attempt to determine whether such r‘Non- arguments” are condiljcnal statements. explanations. or another of the "Non-arguments" that we studied ln Chapter ‘1. 1. lfstern-cell research is restricted. then future cures will not materialize. Iffuture cures do not materialize. then people will die prematurely. Therefore. if stem—cell research is restricted. then people will die prematurely. Agomdht. 2. Five TOO logic students who wore accused of sneaking into the Tallahassee Eco and trying to ride the rhinoceroses pleaded no contest to criminal trespass yesterday. The students scaled a fence to get into the zoo and then climbed another fence to get into the rhinoceros area before security officials caught them. zoo officials said. Non —- argument . EL: Report. 3. No business concern wants to sell on credit to a customer who will prove unable or unwilling to pay his or her account. Consequently. most business organizations include a credit department which must reach a decision on the credit worthiness of each prospectin customer. Argument- Logic TEST #1 . Fall 2:305. page '1 of e Ill. [15 points total] For each of the following arguments: EA] State whether the argument is best interpreted as being inducljye or deductiye. [B] Also state the criteria you use in reaching your decision {i.e., the presence of indicator words, the nature of the inferential link between premises and conclusion. or the character or is: form of argumentation}. - [BY], 1. If a, b, and c are numbers, and if arcs and Elsie. thenitfollows that acc. (A) “This argumen‘t is lassi infarFrcfed as deduds'ue, (3) li- is as moment based an mathemawlihs. 2. All wines are beyerages, and chardonnay Is a beyerage; therefore. chardonnay is a wine. (A) This. argument is iaesi- ih‘l‘flpreieri as dedushiis, (5)14- is a Caiegsriral Syiiofir'sni. Also-J iF but-h Premises are trusty ii” is impossible for c mndusiso to be fake. it . Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States, was caused by a huge volcanic eruption i'?00 years age. Since human beings have liyed around the mountain for more than 10,000 years, it is likely that people witnessed that eruption. [All This ai'aumeiil- is best ifiitrprt’rtd as" iiidusi'l'uc, (5)11“: cancrugi'” prsbabij JQQHIJHj {his the presumes, 1in [12 points total] The following arguments are deductive. [A]. State whether each is valid or love“ . [E]. State the truth-yalues of the premises and the conclusion {which are true and which are false}. {C}. State whether the argument is sound or unsound. 1. There are a starting players on the TCC baseball team. “I'herefore, at least two members of the .5: starting team were born on the same day of the week, + i A ‘ ment- is VALID. (If flue penis-s is has; i is 3’ H .1115 $3” impossiiils fir fin toHciUEFm‘t to be false.) FL [3] F; True J C: True a “i IE] This crannies: is SEUN‘D. s s. 2. If Senator Hillary Clinton represents California. then she represents a western state. Hillary Clinton does not represent a western state. Therefore. she does not represent California. is] "We glasses is wine, [3] E:ng} PifoIIEI ClTfitB EC} This argumth't [5 Same-J" u‘r Logic TEST #1, Fall 2005, page 2 of E . of: Pa. 3. Since Moby' Dick was written by Shakespeare. and Mocy Dick is a science fiction novel. it follows that Shakespeare wrote a science fiction novel. CL [A] T1163 Swanson-l is Ua'lt‘cl. [e] fi=Fj 55F; C: F [C] The argument is seasonal. 'U'. [12 points total] The o owing arguments are inductive. [A] State whether each is strong or weak. [S] State the truth—values cf the premises and the conclusion {which are true [in the case of premises}. probablyr true {in the case cfooncluslons}, which are false. and which are unknown by you]. [[11 If possible. state whether the argument is cogent or uncogent. l7 s E l 1. Ray Charles. Stevie 1tili'onder. and Marcus Roberts are all great musicians. Theglr are also blind. Marion Anderson was also a great musician. Thus. it follows that she was bllnd. [A] Th1; agumen‘l’ 13 £316.35:- Fri- IE] 'Pfi-T, Fifi} F3”: 5”” Mn. [C] This agent-ht s. uncgjeni". 5"“ Fr 2. African American athlete Jerome Bettis is able to withstand tremendous impacts on the football field. Flt- HWenus ‘u'hilliams, like Jerome Bettis. is a great African American athlete. Therefore, II.i'enus Williams should be able to withstand tremendous impacts on the football field. CL [A] Thi; argument it Web. [31 PET) Pas'l') c: Amt-.F-"J [C] This argumcnl' [s unufienlfi F9: 3. Every map of the United States shows that Alabama is situated on the Pacific coast Therefore, a Alabama must be a western state. [A] The argument is strong. {3] H: F) C. : F [c] The argument” I: usual-gab. ‘55.; Logic TEST #1. Fall 2W5. page S of S VI. [15 points total] Use the counterexample method. as I showed you in class. to prove the following categorical syllogism invalid. For your counterexample use terms such as "fish." “dogs." "cats." “mammals.” "animals." and “living organisms." Here is The Method — Step 1: underline the conclusion once... Step 2'. re-write the argument in standard order; that is. with premises first. then a horizontal line. then the conclusion. Also. use the 3 letters I have given you in the Dictionary" .Step 3: re write the argument. still in standard form. but using some {not all} of the terms from the r‘fish. " “dogs." eic. list above. to produce a s—upso‘tutlon instance which' Is a counterexample] Some farm workers are not pe rsons who are paid decent wa es, because no illegal aliens are persons who are paid decent wages. and some illegal aliens are not farm workers. Use the following dictionary: F'. Farm workers. P: Persons who are paid decent wages. l: Illeai aliens. Step 1: {Did you remember to do it?} / _es_51 21 files; II. I as s No oi m WWI... 0" Some I ”"3 ”Di- F: Some 30”“ STE. We Clojj‘ (T) Some Fora MT fl ch35 are rial mammals. 06) Saint-4 Logic TEST #1. Fall 20135. page 4 of E J t - ~- r: .= .. Use the counterexample method. as! showed you in class. to prove the following categorical s o-i n ' valid. — - -* ' 7": thud — Step 1: Step 1: underline the conclusion once... Step 2: make a "Dictionary' in the space he pmided... Step 3: rewrite the argument in standard order. that is. with premises first. then a horizontal line. then the conclusion. Also. in this step. use the letters from your Dictionary Step 4: luvrite a substitution instance of the argument {your choice ofthe terms}. using words. not letter symbols. to produce a counterexample] :5: it carbon dioxide is present in the atmosphere. then plants have a source of carbon. Hence. since 4 / J plants have a source of carbon. carbon dioxide is resent in the atmos here. 4, ’ g Ste 1: Did cu remember to do It? l/ Ste 2: Make a Dicti n ' _ (2 - (we dioxii is present m it? Steg 3: fit 5 ' adfmcfgm .- ppm J? C) en 5215'" havcdfi 0-? rites. it: ‘v'lll. [1D points total] True —- False {T = True 3: F = False} “ ‘l. T A valid argument may have a false premise and a true conclusion. 2. 5 Logic may be defined as the science that evaluates arguments. 3. E It a deductive argument has true premises and a true conclusion. then it must be valid. 4. F: The words and phrases “for.” “because." “for the reason that." “since." and “hence” are all conclusion indicators. 5. 1 An argument that presents two alternatives and eliminates one. leaving the other as the conclusion. is a deductive argument. 6. F An argument that draws a conclusion about a thing based upon that thing's similarity to something else is a deductive argument. "I". T In some cases. an illustration may be considered to be an argument. El. 1 Having oxygen present is a necessary condition for fire. 9. T An lnvalld argument may have tme premises and a true conclusion. 10. '1' Some expository passages can be correctly interpreted as arguments. t. Logic TEST #1, Fall 2005. page 5 of E ...
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