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Unformatted text preview: The Hebrew Bible: What is Tanakh? Recap of Previous Class Judaism can refer to Faith, Religion or Culture People/Practices/Ideas can be considered Jewish if they connect with Jewish Faith, Religion or Culture There are boundary cases that test the limits of definition Though in this class we spend most of our time on ideology, we always recognize that at any given time in any given place, no single entity is the definitive Jew, Judaism or Jewish position. Torah (literally teaching) Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy
Spanish Torah Scroll written ca. 1100 Nevi'im (Prophets) The Great Isaiah Scroll written ~200BCE Joshua Judges I & II Samuel I & II Kings Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Minor Prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habaquq, Haggai, Zephaniah, Malakhi) Ketuvim (Writings) Psalms Proverbs Job Song of Songs Ruth Lamentations Ecclesiastes Esther Daniel Ezra Nehemiah I & II Chronicles Aleppo Codex written ~ 930 CE TaNaKH
Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Minor Prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakuk, Haggai, Zephaniah, Malakhi) Nevi'im (Prophets)
Joshua Judges I & II Samuel I & II Kings Ketuvim (Writings)
Psalms Proverbs Job Daniel Ezra Nehemiah I & II Chronicles Song of Songs Ruth Lamentations Ecclesiastes Esther Timeline 3760 BCE Traditional date of Creation of World--Year 0 2104 BCE Traditional date of The Flood 1812 BCE Traditional date of Birth of Abram (Abraham) 17901750 BCE Hammurabi's Reign 1312 BCE Traditional date of Exodus/Revelation 1272 BCE Traditional date of entry into Israel. 1200s BCE Earliest Archeological mention of Israel 12001020 BCE Chieftains (Judges) 1020920 BCE United Monarchy 920720 BCE Divided Monarchy (Torah and much of Nevi'im composed) 720 BCE Fall and Exile of Northern Kingdom; Judah remains 587 BCE Fall of Judah, First Temple Destroyed, Babylonian Exile 538 BCE Edict of Cyrus and beginning of return 515 BCE Completion of the Second Temple (Much of Ketuvim composed) 250 BCE Septuagint translation of Hebrew Bible into Greek 167 BCE Antiochus' decree (Hanukah) 166164 BCE Hasmonean (Maccabean) revolt 162 BCE Estimated date of composition for book of Daniel The Bible is Not a Single Book! Different Volumes, written at different times by different authors Different Genres of Writing Different Claims to Authority Historical narratives Law codes Prophetic Poems Wisdom Literature Different Canonizations Author is divine or has relationship with divine Author is wise Christian versions of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) include books that are not included in standard Tanakhs Even among Jews, different groups included works in their Bibles that others excluded Ancient BooksContemporary Books Much of ancient literature was transmitted orally from generation to generation Originary myths developed layers of interpretation as they were transmitted Storytellers edited the ancient materials they received, often combining materials from multiple earlier sources As stories became more complex they developed something of a canonical status and became more fixed. Eventually they were so fixed that no storyteller would deliberately alter their core facts. Torah in the Context of the Ancient Near East
Enuma Elish 7th Century BCE Assyrian Version of 18th century BCE Babylonian Creation Myth Torah Known to be complete around 7th Century BCE preserves material going back to 27th Century BCE Epic of Gilgamesh 7th Century BCE Assyrian Version of story about 27th Century BCE King What Bible Criticism Shows Traditionally, the Bible is treated as a single volume even though the tradition recognizes multiple authors Biblical critics are interested in the composition of the Bible Even individual works rely on multiple original sources These original sources can sometimes differ on important religious concepts like God's nature Religion of the Bible Because of the fact that the Bible is not a single book, one must be aware of the variety of religious ideas and practices that exists in the various works that comprise the Tanakh Even when one can identify a specific religious practice or belief in the text, one must often read against the grain to see that this practice or belief was not actually being practiced by the people The Bible is an elite Priestly literature written by literate, wealthy men. Awareness of this is helpful in identifying further variety of religious life ...
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- Spring '11
- The Bible