CS110_02a_printfScanf - EECS 110 2a Literals& Constants...

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Unformatted text preview: EECS 110: 2a Literals & Constants, printf() & scanf() Essentials Jack Tumblin [email protected] Types of Variables There are 4 basic `built-in' types in C: Type Integer Floating point Double Character C keyword to use: int float double char BAD: Scattered Literals /******************************************* Hydra.c -- a program with variables. *******************************************/ #include < stdio.h > main() { int heads; int eyes; heads = 3; eyes = heads * 2; integer literals; -not declared, just written directly -(no memory location; not a C variable!) /* assign a value */ /* compute a value */ printf("It has %d heads and %d eyes! \n", heads, eyes); } string literal; (includes quotes) -not declared, just written directly -(no memory location; not a C variable!) Better!: #define for Literals /******************************************* Hydra.c -- a program with variables. *******************************************/ #include < stdio.h > #define JT_HEADS #define JT_EYES_PER_HEAD main() { int heads; int eyes,hats; 3 2 preprocessor directives; -centralized location; -defined once (no scattered typos!) -can use it many times w/o error -(REMEMBER: no memory location; not a C variable!) heads = JT_HEADS; /* assign a value */ eyes = heads * JT_EYES_PER_HEAD; /* compute a value */ hats = JT_HEADS; printf("It has %d heads and %d eyes! \n", heads, eyes); printf("It needs %d hats in winter.", hats); } Better!: #define for Literals /******************************************* Hydra.c -- a program with preprocessor variables. *******************************************/ #include < stdio.h > directives; -strict substitution, -`build' does it BEFORE compiling - OK for *ANY* text in your pgm! #define JT_HEADS 3 #define JT_EYES_PER_HEAD 2 #define HAT_STRING "It needs %d hats in Winter" main() { int heads; int eyes,hats; heads = JT_HEADS; /* assign a value */ eyes = heads * JT_EYES_PER_HEAD; /* compute a value */ hats = JT_HEADS; printf("It has %d heads and %d eyes! \n", heads, eyes); printf(HAT_STRING, hats); } #define Directive: A Better Way for Literals Why? One single, central location for fixed values (prevents scattered, hard-to-find errors in literals) Works for ANY repeated text, not just numbers (string literals, even executable text statements...) How? put your #defines with other directives (e.g. #include, etc) Syntax: #define UNIQUE_NAME my_VALue42 Before compiling, `pre-processor' does find&replace on your file: every UNIQUE_NAME string replaced by my_VALue42. Convention: UNIQUE_NAME is always in UPPERCASE. CAREFUL! NOT A STATEMENT! no semicolon needed! Literals .vs. Constants A CS jargon disaster! (even your book confuses them!) `Literals'==fixed values written into the program: not declared, no address--no memory location assigned address not re-usable--written directly into each statement... no error-finding help--danger! misteaks are very hard to find) help Better Idea! use #define (C preprocessor directive) `Constants'== genuine C variables (?!?!), but set once and then FORBIDDEN TO CHANGE. CHANGE must declare, must initialize (or get errors). has a genuine address in memory (important later) re-usable in as many statements as you like. Try to change values? Reports errors `at run-time'! Literals .vs. Constants In CS jargon, constants are variables (!?!?!) whose value is found when the program runs (CS Jargon: `initialized at run-time'), that CANNOT CHANGE as program runs. (try it! you'll get an error message) How? Declare a variable, but use keyword const before variable type: const double pi = 3.1415926535897932384626433832795; (hint: Start=>Programs=>Accessories=>Calculator, View=>Scientific, PI button) All together now: Constants, Literals, #define #include<stdio.h> /*compiler directive*/ #define JT_PI 3.1415926535897932384626433832795 /*preprocessor directive*/ (hint: Start=>Programs=>Accessories=>Calculator, View=>Scientific, PI button) int main() { const double m_pi = JT_PI; /*const enforces fixed-value var*/ return (m_pi * 2.0); } ?Why is this better? Literals .vs. Constants ?Why have both? `Literals'==fixed values written into the program Value is fixed when you write the program (CS Jargon: `at compile-time') Impossible to change without re-compiling. (reliable). Hint: use #define for a central location to set value `Constants'== genuine C variables, but set once and then FORBIDDEN TO CHANGE. CHANGE Value is set as the program runs; misuse? Error msg. Value can be computed by program itself, at runtime. Has a reserved memory location: literals do not (other parts of you program can select it, copy it, etc. ) Text output: printf() printf() function will print formatted output to the screen. To print a string: printf("This is a message"); How do we print the value of a variable? Text output: printf() Use special format specifiers depending on type. To print an integer : int deg=53; printf("Today's temperature is %d degrees", deg); Specifier for "print an integer value" "Read value from this variable" Text output: printf() Essential format specifiers: %c for single characters %d for integers %f for float/double fractions: 1234.56 %e for float/double scientific: 1.23456E+3 %s for phrases or `strings' (coming soon!) more formatting details later... %x or %X for hexadecimal (base 16) : 0x14FB79E0 %o for octal (base 8): 0x14FB79E0 Keyboard input: scanf() scanf() function will scan formatted keyboard input values into your program. Uses same format specifiers as printf(), but for input To read an integer : scanf(" %d", &integer_variable_name); Specifier for "read an integer" (NEEDS the space char!) VERY IMPORTANT special symbol (pointers: you'll understand soon) Keyboard input: scanf() #include <stdio.h> int main() { int heads, eyes; printf("how many heads?:"); /* ask user */ scanf(" %d", &heads); /* read in */ eyes = heads * 2; /* compute */ printf("Watch out for %d eyes!\n",eyes); return 0; } Result: > how many heads? 3 (you type in 3) > Watch out for 6 eyes! Try it! How can we write a program to compute the area of a circle? The volume of a rectangle? The balance point for a fulcrum with two weights on each end? What happens if we MIX data types? int i,j; double fi, fj,f0,f1,f2,f3,f4; i=5; fi = 5.0; j=2; fj = 2.0; f0 f1 f2 /*** f3 = fi/ = i/ = fi/ BUT! ***/ = i/ fj; fj; fj; j; /* int, double 5 */ /* int, double 2 */ /* /* /* result: result: result: 2.5 2.5 2.5 */ */ */ /* result: 2.0 */ /* result: 2.5 */ f4 = (double)i/ (double)j; WHY?!?! See pg 114 in book... `Cast' i and j to type double ...
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