drugs - • Poisons target particular pathways •...

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Principles of Biology Drugs Enzyme Activity Can Mirror Drug Action The way enzymes (and enzyme-inhibitors) act can give us a clue as to how our medicines work Enzymes are protein catalysts that accelerate specific chemical reactions but does not itself undergo net chemical changes Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action A competitive inhibitor takes the place of a substrate in the active site. A noncompetitive inhibitor alters an enzyme’s function by changing its shape. Feedback inhibition regulates cell activity In feedback inhibition (AKA Negative feedback) , a reaction’s product blocks the reaction itself. This is a mechanism to regulate metabolism in cells. It saves resources from being wasted in reducing unnecessary production. And controls the action being produced so that it does not progress too extremely Many poisons, pesticides, and drugs are enzyme inhibitors Many inhibitors are irreversible à permanently alter a pathway
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Unformatted text preview: • Poisons target particular pathways • Penicillin • Ibuprofen & aspirin • ACE inhibitors à Angiotensin converting enzyme Your liver and the smooth ER • The liver detoxifies many substances in our bodies, often using enzymes produced by smooth ER in the liver cells. • Overexposure causes the smooth ER to grow, reducing the effectiveness of a particular drug. • Liver tissue can scar, causing cirrhosis, often fatally. Endoplasmic Reticulum Complications • Some diseases may be linked to ER malfunction • Cystic Fibrosis-The childhood disease refers to two of the hallmarks of the disease—the formation of lung cysts and fibosis, or scar tissue. • Mutant CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) gets stuck in endoplasmic reticulum and can’t perform its function Drug Abuse Basics • Changes Rapidly • Very difficult to control • Total results unknown • Serious problem for all of us...
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