molecules of cells

molecules of cells - o Polysaccharides are long chains of...

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Principles of Biology The Molecules of Cells Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon. o A carbon atom can form up to four covalent bonds, allowing it to build large and diverse organic compounds. Organic Molecules o Compunds containing carbon. Hydrocarbons o Contain only hydrogen and carbon atoms. Isomers o Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures. Functional Groups o Help determine the properties of organic compounds. o Particular groupings of atoms give molecules certain properties. Biological Molecules o Many are gigantic and called macromolecules o Cells make the most of their gigantic molecules by joining monomers to form polymers, by a dehydration reaction. The reverse of this is hydrolysis, which breaks down polymers to monomers. o Four main groups Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbs o Monosaccharaides are the simplest carbohydrates, these are monomers. These ‘simple sugars’ can join to form disaccharides, like table sugar and brewing sugar.
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Unformatted text preview: o Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharaides combined together by dehydration reactions. • Lipids o Many types, mainly hydrogen and carbon atoms linked by non-polar covalent bonds. o Lipids are grouped together as they are hydrophobic, as a result of their non-polar structure. o Fats are lipids whose main function is energy storage. They consist of glycerol linked to three fatty acids. o Other lipids contain phospholipids, waxes, steroids… • Proteins o Essential to the structures and activities of life. o A polymer constructed from amino acid monomers. o Proteins are involved in all of a cell’s activities. o Enzymes are proteins that regulate chemical reactions in the body. o Each amino acid contains: An amino group A carboxyl group An R group o The bonds between amino acid monomers are called peptide bonds. • Nucleic Acids o DNA/RNA o Monomers are called nucleotides, composed of sugar, phosphate and a nitrogenous base....
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molecules of cells - o Polysaccharides are long chains of...

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