The Units of Life - • The Rough ER o Manufactures...

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Priniciples of Biology The Units of Life Prokaryotes o Appeared on Earth billions of years ago o Oldest life-forms, most numerous and widespread o Domains include Achaea and Bacteria 2 Kinds of Cell o Prokaryotic- small relatively simple cells that do not have a membrane bound nucleus o Eukaryotic- probably originated as a community of prokaryotic cells, has a nucleus and endomembrane system, has mitochondria and chloroplasts. Plant Cells o Have structures that an animal cell lacks like chloroplasts and a rigid cell wall. The endomembrane system o Collection of membranous organelles that manufacture and distribute cell products. o Largest organelle is the nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope. o Nucleus is the cell control center, controlling the cell’s DNA which directs cellular activity. The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum o Synthesizes lipids o Processes toxins and drugs o Stores and releases calcium ions in muscle cells
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Unformatted text preview: • The Rough ER o Manufactures membranes o Ribosomes on the surface of the rough ER produces proteins that are secreted, inserted intro membranes, or transported in vesicles to other organelles. • Golgi Apparatus o Stacks of membranous sacs receive and modify ER products, then ship them to other organelles or the cell surface. • Lysosomes o Sacs of enzymes that function with digestion in the cell. o Lysosomes in white blood cells destroy bacteria that have been ingested. o They also recycle damaged organelles. o Abnormal lysosomes can cause fatal diseases. • Vacuoles o Function in the general maintenance of the cell. o Plants contain a large central vacuole. • Chloroplasts o Convert solar energy to chemical energy in sugars • Mitochondria o Carry out cellular respiration, which uses the chemical energy in food to make ATP for cellular work....
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