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constition 1 - Common Sense(1776 Thomas Paine originally...

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Common Sense (1776) •Thomas Paine, originally from Britain •Moved independence issue to center stage It had not been considered seriously early on. Within three months 120,000 copies had been sold. •Endorsement of Republican Democracy as an alternative to monarchy The belief that a form of government in which the interests of the people are represented through elected leaders is the best form of government •Influences Americans thought independence was a good idea. In June 1776 Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee called for creation of a new nation separate from Britain. Declaration of Independence “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government.”-drafted by Thomas Jefferson, 1776 •On July 4, 1776, each member of the Second Continental Congress signed the document (13 states). Articles of Confederation •First Constitution •In force from 1781 to 1788 when the present Constitution of the United States became effective. •Written by committee of the 2ndContinental Congress. •The first government was a confederation •a highly decentralized governmental system in which the national government derives limited authority from the states rather than directly from the citizenry Issue Articles of Confederation Legislature Unicameral Congress Membersof Congress Between two and seven per state Voting in Congress Onevote per state Selection of members Appointed by state legislatures Term of legislative office One year Term limitfor legislative office No more than three out of every six years Congressionalpay Paid by states Executive None
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National judiciary Maritimejudiciary established, no general federal courts Settle disputes between states Congress New States Admitted with approval of nine states Amendmentsto the document When approved by all states Power to coin money Federal government and the states Taxes Apportioned by Congress, collected by the states Ratification Unanimous consent required Articles of Confederation (cont.) •Broad consensus among the convention delegates that the Articles of Confederation need to be changed. Considerations are: Majority rule versus minority rights Large states versus small states Legislative versus executive power National versus state and local power and slave states versus nonslavestates Majority rule v. Minority rights To the Founders, this meant regional and economic minorities and not racial/ethnic minorities.
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