HIST 2111 Saunt 1

HIST 2111 Saunt 1 - 000000 Tuesday The Politics of...

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00-000-0 Tuesday January 12, 2010 The Politics of Pre-Columbian American History 95 % of history took place before Columbus arrival 4 Main Questions Where did first Americans come from? o Traditional story, they came across the Bering strait from Asia,- known from incisor shoveling, people from Siberia and Native Americans share similar dental features. o Bering Strait is 56 miles across. Water is 26 miles across. During last ice age sea level dropped exposing the Beringia( 600 to 1000 miles wide) ,which is how the first people crossed over. o They believe about 25 people migrated across. o However a skull shape (Kennewick Man, found in Washington state several years ago 8) had features that were not Eastern Siberian, European features instead, suggests that people came from elsewhere. o In the traditional story there was an ice free corridor that they could migrate through; however, there wasn’t an ice corridor around that time (16,000 to 17, 000 years ago), when evidence points out that people were there. o Proposed migrations routes mid continental route - via Bering strait, coastal route- sailed along the coast of Africa Pacific route- sailed across the Pacific, there were camp sites on south America Atlantic route- similar spear points to those found in Spain, they sailed along the glaciers to North America. When did they come? o Most believe they migrated from the most recent ice age when the water dropped 300 ft ( 12 thousand to 20 thousand years ago) o People now suggest that they may have come in the previous ice age where it dropped 200 ft. o The earliest skeleton was found 12 thousand years ago. They have found places where there might be campsites based on the tools left behind such as sharpened rocks. There is also lots of disagreement between archaeologists about the significance of the rocks. o Actual migration time is Important to Native Americans because it gives them an older claim. How many were there? o The estimates are not precise.. Lowest 2 million, highest 26 million ( 6-8 million) o To figure it out, you study where people lived, however the problems are that huge parts of the country have been paved over and it cant be explored for remains. There is a lot guess work involved. o You can also study it based on resources, however the problems are what did they eat? How many? 1     Student Notes      Reproduction Prohibited.
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00-000-0 o You can work backwards based on stories (oral tradition)but how reliable are they? o You can start from a known figure and work backward, use the oldest known census that covers all Native Americans which was taken in1890 (250 thousand)Then look at fertility rate and mortality rate, but, we don’t know what the values are? The big question is how many people did Europeans kill?
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