3420_toeic_vocabulary_words

3420_toeic_vocabulary_words - A AOL A.O.B.2 A1 3420 TOEIC...

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Unformatted text preview: A AOL A.O.B.2. A1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words A.O.B. abbr. used at the end of the list of subjects to be discussed at a meeting or conference AOL abbr. American corporation headquartered in Virginia, owner and operator of on line and interactive computer services Forms: any other business a.m. ASAP4. 3. Forms: America Online ASAP abbr. quickly; immediately; swiftly; speedily; fast a.m. abbr. morning; time before noon; hours between midnight and noon Forms: as soon as possible (asap, a.s.a.p., A.S.A.P.) Forms: ante meridiem (am, A.M, AM) abbreviation n. shortened form of a word or word combination Forms: plural: abbreviations abide v. to comply; to obey; to conform; to stay; to tolerate Forms: abided; abided; abiding abide abbreviation6. 5. ability n. skill; talent; aptitude; capacity; power Forms: plural: abilities abolish v. to cancel; to revoke Forms: abolished; abolished; abolishing abound v. to be plentiful; to be filled with; to overflow with Forms: abounded; abounded; abounding able adj. competent; talented; apt abound abolish10. 9. able ability8. 7. above prep. over; higher than; more than above n. something previously mentioned or indicated Forms: no plural above adj. mentioned earlier in the same text above adv. overhead; over; in a higher place above above14. 13. above above12. 11. abreast adv. side by side; in alignment; on top of; up-to-date; well-informed absence n. failure to appear; state of being away; state of being not present Forms: no plural absent adj. preoccupied; lost in thought abroad adv. in another country; outside; widely absorbed absorb20. 19. absent absence18. 17. abroad abreast16. 15. 1 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words absorb v. to suck up; take up; take in Forms: absorbed; absorbed; absorbing absorbed adj. treated as an expense abundant adj. plentiful; copious; profuse; full abounding with abuse v. to injure; to harm; to mistreat Forms: abused; abused; abusing abuse n. maltreatment; corrupt practice; foul language accelerate v. to hasten; to increase the speed of something; to speed something up Forms: no plural Forms: accelerated; accelerated; accelerating accelerate abuse24. 23. abuse abundant22. 21. accelerator n. gas pedal of a motor vehicle Forms: plural: accelerators accept v. to receive; to agree; to consent Forms: accepted; accepted; accepting accept accelerator26. 25. acceptance n. act of receiving; approval; state of believing in something Forms: no plural Forms: accessed; accessed; accessing access v. to gain entrance to; to get at access acceptance28. 27. access n. approach; entry; permission to enter a computer system or network and/or retrieve data Forms: no plural Forms: plural: accidents accident n. casualty; misadventure; mishap; failure accident access30. 29. accommodate v. to adapt oneself; to host guests; to provide lodging accommodation n. housing; residence; lodging; arrangement; adjustment accommodation accommodate32. 31. Forms: accommodated; accommodated; accommodating Forms: no plural accompany v. to go along with; to go together with; to join; to attach Forms: accompanied; accompanied; accompanying accord accomplishment36. 35. accomplish accompany34. 33. accomplish v. to complete; to achieve; to attain; to perform Forms: accomplished; accomplished; accomplishing 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words accomplishment n. fulfillment; realization; attainment; achievement Forms: plural: accomplishments accordance accord38. 37. accord v. to give; to match; to fit; to complement Forms: accorded; accorded; according accord n. agreement; settlement; harmony Forms: no plural accordance n. conformity; agreement; coordination; suitability Forms: no plural account v. to explain; to give a report; to cause; to regard account n. business arrangement; client; funds deposited in a bank Forms: accounted; accounted; accounting Forms: plural: accounts account account40. 39. accountant n. a person who keeps financial records; a person who conducts financial audits Forms: plural: accountants accounting n. a system of recording and analyzing financial transactions; auditing; a detailed financial statement Forms: no plural accounting accountant42. 41. accredit v. to certify; to recognize; to assign; to license Forms: accredited; accredited; accrediting accrue v. to compile; to increase; to accumulate; to grow Forms: accrued; accrued; accruing accrue accredit44. 43. accuracy n. preciseness; exactness Forms: no plural achieve v. to obtain; to attain; to perform; to accomplish Forms: achieved; achieved; achieving achieve accuracy46. 45. achievement n. performance; operation; attainment; mission; success acquaint v. to make familiar; to present someone; to introduce someone Forms: plural: achievements Forms: acquainted; acquainted; acquainting acquaint achievement48. 47. acquaintance n. person that you have met but do not know well; knowledge of something; familiarity Forms: plural: acquaintances acquainted adj. familiar; close; intimate; informed; aware acquisition acquire52. 51. acquainted acquaintance50. 49. 3 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words acquire v. to buy; to obtain; to purchase; to attain acquisition n. purchase; something that has been purchased or obtained Forms: acquired; acquired; acquiring actual acronym54. 53. Forms: plural: acquisitions acronym n. a word which is formed from the first letters of several words; i.e. TOEIC or NATO Forms: plural: acronyms ad n. informal word for a commercial announcement Forms: plural: ads adamant diamond Forms: plural: adamants adapt addiction adamant ad pref. toward; at actual adj. substantial; real; tangible; current adamant adamant58. 57. ad ad56. 55. n. something unyielding; something hard; stone similar to adj. unyielding; firm; hard; unbending addiction adapt60. 59. v. to conform; to change; to make suitable; to match; to fit n. devotion to a certain habit; dependency Forms: adapted; adapted; adapting additional addition62. 61. Forms: plural: addictions addition n. supplement; mathematical operation Forms: plural: additions additive n. supplement address v. to direct to; to speak to; to direct to a specific destination; to refer to Forms: plural: additives Forms: addressed; addressed; addressing additional adj. extra; supplemental address additive64. 63. address n. location; description of a location Forms: plural: addresses adept adj. proficient; skilled; expert adequate adept68. 67. adept address66. 65. 4 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words adept n. person who is an expert; person who is skilled Forms: plural: adepts adequate adj. sufficient; suitable; appropriate; proper adhere v. to stick to; to cling to; to be devoted to (an idea, group, organization etc.) Forms: adhered; adhered; adhering adjourn v. to postpone; to delay; to end a meeting; to move to another place Forms: adjourned; adjourned; adjourning adjourn adhere70. 69. adjust v. to modify; to adapt; to fit; to arrange; to settle Forms: adjusted; adjusted; adjusting adjustable rate n. an interest percentage that changes over time Forms: plural: adjustable rates rate adjustable adjust72. 71. adjustment n. adaption; settlement of an insurance claim Forms: plural: adjustments administer v. to manage; to supervise; to supply; to dispense Forms: administered; administered; administering administer adjustment74. 73. administration n. management; supervisors; leadership Forms: plural: administrations admirable adj. worthy of adoration; impressive; wonderful; marvelous Forms: no plural admission n. entrance; permission to enter; confession admit v. to confess to something; to allow entrance; to accept as valid Forms: no plural Forms: admitted; admitted; admitting admiration n. enchantment; affection; adoration administrative adj. managerial; executive admit admission80. 79. admiration admirable78. 77. administrative administration76. 75. admonish v. to warn; to scold; to reprove Forms: admonished; admonished; admonishing ado n. commotion; flurry; excitement Forms: no plural ado admonish82. 81. adorn adopt84. 83. 5 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words adopt v. to form a relationship with another person Forms: adopted; adopted; adopting adult adroit86. 85. adorn v. to decorate; to beautify Forms: adorned; adorned; adorning adroit adj. alert; clever; ingenious; skillful; adept adult n. opposite of child; a grown-up; a mature person Forms: plural: adults adult adj. mature; full grown advance adj. beforehand advance adult88. 87. advance n. progress; modernization; promotion advance v. to progress; to promote; to make a payment before it is due Forms: plural: advances Forms: advanced; advanced; advancing advance advance90. 89. advancement n. forward movement; progress; promotion Forms: plural: advancements advantage n. benefit; profit; utility; avail Forms: plural: advantages advantage advancement92. 91. advantage v. to help; to assist; to promote; to be beneficial to adverse opinion n. one of several separate payments into which a debt has been divided; section; portion Forms: advantaged; advantaged; advantaging Forms: plural: adverse opinions opinion adverse advantage94. 93. adversely adv. unfavorably; in a manner that works against; antagonistically Forms: plural: adversities advert v. to refer to; to comment on; to draw attention to advert n. public announcement or printed notice designed to attract attention Forms: adverted; adverted; adverting Forms: plural: adverts adversity n. misfortune; hardship; distress; suffering advert advert98. 97. adversity adversely96. 95. advertisement advertise100. 99. 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words advertise v. to promote; to draw attention to; to publicize advertisement n. commercial information designed to attract attention; commercial Forms: advertised; advertised; advertising advise advice102. 101. Forms: plural: advertisements advice n. counsel; guidance; specific information; hint Forms: no plural advise v. to counsel; to offer guidance; to notify; to inform Forms: advised; advised; advising advisor affect affect advisor104. 103. n. a person who provides guidance; consultant; counselor v. to influence Forms: plural: advisors; other spelling version: adviser affiliate affiliate106. 105. Forms: affected; affected; affecting affiliate n. partner company; distributor Forms: plural: affiliates affiliate v. to join with; to connect to; to become attached to Forms: affiliated; affiliated; affiliating affiliation n. connection; attachment Forms: plural: affiliations affinity n. attraction; closeness; liking; likeness Forms: plural: affinities affinity affiliation108. 107. afford v. to be able to pay for; to supply; to provide Forms: afforded; afforded; affording age n. period; era; generation Forms: plural: ages age afford110. 109. age v. to grow older; to mature Forms: aged; aged; aging agency n. office; bureau; institution; franchise; method Forms: plural: agencies agency age112. 111. agenda n. schedule; calendar; outline of things to be done Forms: plural: agendas agent n. representative; rep; factor; cause Forms: plural: agents agent agenda114. 113. aggregate v. to accumulate; to gather; to collect; to assemble Forms: aggregated; aggregated; aggregating aggregate adj. collective; total; taking all units as a whole schedule aging aggregate118. 117. aggregate aggregate116. 115. 7 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words aggregate n. combination; conjunction; group; mixture Forms: plural: aggregates agreement agree120. 119. aging schedule n. a list of accounts receivable Forms: plural: aging schedules agree v. to consent; to concur; to suit; to have the same opinion; to fit Forms: agreed; agreed; agreeing Forms: plural: agreements agreement n. pact; contract; accord; consent; concurrence ahead adv. forward; in advance aid v. to help; to assist Forms: aided; aided; aiding aid n. help; assistance; accessory Forms: plural: aids aim n. purpose; goal; objective; target Forms: plural: aims aim aid124. 123. aid ahead122. 121. aim v. to try or to intend to achieve something; to direct; to plan; to aspire Forms: aimed; aimed; aiming Forms: no plural aircraft n. any vehicle which can be flown (i.e. helicopter) aircraft aim126. 125. airport n. place used by planes for takeoff and landing Forms: plural: airports airways n. route through traveled by vehicles above ground level Forms: no plural airways airport128. 127. aisle n. passage; walkway (between rows of seats or shelves) Forms: plural: aisles alert n. warning; alarm; attitude of readiness Forms: plural: alerts alert v. to warn; to put on standby; to alarm Forms: alerted; alerted; alerting alert adj. ready; attentive; quick; agile alert alert132. 131. alert aisle130. 129. allay alive134. 133. 8 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words alive adj. active; attentive allay v. to relieve; to calm; to alleviate pain Forms: allayed; allayed; allaying alleviate v. to allay; to soothe; to relieve; to soften; to lessen Forms: alleviated; alleviated; alleviating alliance n. pact; treaty; connection; relationship Forms: plural: alliances alliance alleviate136. 135. allot v. to give out; to distribute; to ration; to set aside for a special purpose Forms: allotted; allotted; allotting Forms: allowed; allowed; allowing allow v. to permit; to enable allow allot138. 137. allowance n. grant; pocket money; stipend; discount; deduction Forms: plural: allowances alter v. to change; to modify Forms: altered; altered; altering alternate v. to interchange; to take turns; to rotate; to substitute Forms: alternated; alternated; alternating alternative n. choice; option Forms: plural: alternatives alternate adj. rotating; one after the other; interchanging already adv. previously; before a certain time alternative alternate144. 143. alternate alter142. 141. already allowance140. 139. although conj. despite the fact that; in spite of the fact that altitude n. height; distance above sea level Forms: plural: altitudes ambiguity n. vagueness; lack of clarity Forms: plural: ambiguities ambition n. aspiration; hope; goal; dream Forms: plural: ambitions ambitious adj. aspiring; desirous of success; requiring great effort ambiguous adj. open to dispute; obscure; vague amend ambivalence152. 151. ambitious ambition150. 149. ambiguous ambiguity148. 147. altitude although146. 145. 9 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words ambivalence n. state of having both positive and negative feelings towards a subject Forms: no plural amount amortization154. 153. amend v. to change; to alter; to improve Forms: amended; amended; amending amortization n. gradual payment of debt; the reduction of the value of an asset Forms: plural: amortizations Forms: amounted; amounted; amounting amount v. to come to a sum; to become; to total amount n. quantity; sum Forms: plural: amounts analysis n. process of breaking down a subject and studying it; examination Forms: no plural analyze v. to examine; to break down into parts and study (as in a subject) Forms: analyzed; analyzed; analyzing ample adj. much; plenty; large; spacious analyze analysis158. 157. ample amount156. 155. anchor v. to attach firmly; to fasten tightly Forms: anchored; anchored; anchoring anchor n. newsreader; broadcaster Forms: plural: anchors anchor anchor160. 159. anger v. to irritate; to infuriate; to enrage Forms: angered; angered; angering anger n. rage; fury Forms: no plural anger anger162. 161. angle v. to bend; to turn sharply in a different direction Forms: angled; angled; angling angle n. point of view; perspective Forms: plural: angles angle angle164. 163. anniversary n. yearly date commemorating a special event; birthday Forms: plural: anniversaries announcement n. declaration; notice; the act of informing the public Forms: plural: announcements announcement anniversary166. 165. annoying annoy168. 167. 10 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words annoy v. to bother; to trouble; to disturb; to upset Forms: annoyed; annoyed; annoying annoying adj. bothersome; troublesome; worrisome; harassing annual adj. occurring once a year; yearly anticipate v. to expect; to predict; to assume Forms: anticipated; anticipated; anticipating anticipation n. expectation; hope; intuition Forms: plural: anticipations anyhow adv. in some way anyway adv. in whatever manner; however anxious adj. fearful; worried; worrisome; eager; keen anyway anyhow174. 173. anxious anticipation172. 171. anticipate annual170. 169. apart prep. besides; but; excluding apart adv. separately; aside; into pieces apart apart176. 175. apartment n. flat Forms: plural: apartments apologize v. to express regret; to say sorry Forms: apologized; apologized; apologizing apologize apartment178. 177. apology n. expression of regret or sorrow; excuse; defense; justification Forms: plural: apologies Forms: plural: apparatuses apparatus n. device; system; machine; gadget; appliance apparatus apology180. 179. apparel v. to dress; to adorn wear Forms: appareled; appareled; appareling apparel n. clothing; garments; clothes; garb Forms: plural: apparels apparel apparel182. 181. apparently adv. evidently; obviously; allegedly; seemingly appeal v. to plead; to request; to petition for a new trial or judgment Forms: appealed; appealed; appealing appealing appeal186. 185. appeal apparently184. 183. 11 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words appeal n. request; plea; petition for a new trial or judgment Forms: plural: appeals appealing adj. begging; attractive; interesting appear v. to come into view; to show up; to seem Forms: appeared; appeared; appearing appearance n. impression; the way a person looks; image; semblance Forms: no plural appearance appear188. 187. appliance n. tool; gadget; device; apparatus Forms: plural: appliances applicant n. candidate; nominee Forms: plural: applicants applicant appliance190. 189. application n. software program; written request; formal letter; implementation Forms: plural: applications apply v. to make a request; to implement; to realize; to put into practice Forms: applied; applied; applying apply application192. 191. appoint v. to nominate; to designate Forms: appointed; appointed; appointing appointment n. official date; meeting; interview; nomination Forms: plural: appointments appointment appoint194. 193. appreciate v. to esteem; to regard highly; to become more valuable Forms: appreciated; appreciated; appreciating approach v. to come near to; to tackle (a problem or situation) Forms: approached; approached; approaching approach appreciate196. 195. approach n. access; method; system; procedure Forms: plural: approaches appropriate v. to set aside; to allot; to adapt; to embrace; to accept Forms: appropriated; appropriated; appropriating approval n. confirmation; endorsement; positive opinion Forms: plural: approvals appropriate adj. suitable; fitting approval appropriate200. 199. appropriate approach198. 197. list approved approve202. 201. 12 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words approve v. to agree; to concur; to confirm; to endorse approved list n. inventory of legal investments for savings banks and trust funds Forms: approved; approved; approving apt approximately204. 203. Forms: plural: approved lists approximately adv. nearly; about; around; circa apt adj. suitable; appropriate; intelligent; savvy; capable aptitude n. ability; skill; talent Forms: plural: aptitudes area n. region; domain; field; category Forms: plural: areas argue v. to dispute; to claim; to give reasons Forms: argued; argued; arguing arbitrary adj. optional; uncertain; changeable; open; unrestricted argue area208. 207. arbitrary aptitude206. 205. argument n. dispute; claim; rationale; cause arrange v. to organize; to settle; to structure; to order; to systematize Forms: plural: arguments Forms: arranged; arranged; arranging arrange argument210. 209. arrangement n. organization; order; selection; range; assortment Forms: plural: arrangements array n. display; layout; clothing; menu Forms: plural: arrays array arrangement212. 211. arrest n. detention; imprisonment Forms: plural: arrests arrest v. to detain; to slow down; to capture; to imprison Forms: arrested; arrested; arresting arrest arrest214. 213. arrival arrive succeed Forms: plural: arrivals Forms: arrived; arrived; arriving arrive arrival216. 215. n. reaching a destination; incoming; opposite of departure v. to reach a destination; to return; to come back; to article n. item; object; piece of text; paragraph of a contract Forms: plural: articles article v. to bind with a contract Forms: articled; articled; articling article article218. 217. articulate articulate220. 219. 13 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words articulate adj. lucid; eloquent; expressed using clear and distinct words; able to speak articulate v. to express in a fluent and clear manner Forms: articulated; articulated; articulating artificial adj. not genuine; simulated; unreal artisan n. creator; craftsman; skilled workman Forms: plural: artisans ascertain v. to clarify; to confirm; to reinforce; to verify Forms: ascertained; ascertained; ascertaining assembly assemble226. 225. aspect ascertain224. 223. artisan artificial222. 221. aspect n. facet; outlook; direction; issue; point Forms: plural: aspects assemble v. to gather; to collect; to converge; to arrange; to meet Forms: assembled; assembled; assembling assembly n. meeting; conference; set; group of people Forms: plural: assemblies assess v. to estimate; to gauge; to evaluate; to measure Forms: assessed; assessed; assessing assessment n. estimation; appraisal; measurement Forms: plural: assessments assessment assess228. 227. asset n. something of value (property, equipment, goods, etc.); item of quality; something beneficial Forms: plural: assets assign v. to allot; to apportion; to give somebody a task or responsibility; to delegate; to appoint Forms: assigned; assigned; assigning assign asset230. 229. assignment n. task; duty; responsibility; role; obligation Forms: plural: assignments assimilate v. to incorporate; to take in; to absorb Forms: assimilated; assimilated; assimilating assimilate assignment232. 231. assist v. to aid; to help; to support; to guide; to direct Forms: assisted; assisted; assisting assistance n. aid; help; support; direction; upkeep Forms: no plural assistance assist234. 233. assistant assistant236. 235. 14 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words assistant n. person who gives support to a superior; aide; helper Forms: plural: assistants assistant adj. serving as an aide; helpful; supportive; auxiliary associate n. partner; fellow worker; co-worker; friend Forms: plural: associates associate v. to share company; to connect; to relate to; to combine Forms: associated; associated; associating associate associate238. 237. association n. organization; society; union; coalition; foundation Forms: plural: associations assort v. to classify; to categorize; to systematize; to structure Forms: assorted; assorted; assorting assort association240. 239. assortment n. variety; collection; selection; range; mixture assume v. to suppose; to take on a position or duty; to accept an idea Forms: plural: assortments Forms: assumed; assumed; assuming assume assortment242. 241. assure attach attach assure244. 243. v. to give confidence; to promise; to pledge; to encourage v. to fasten; to link to; to add; to ascribe to; to connect to Forms: assured; assured; assuring attain attachment246. 245. Forms: attached; attached; attaching attachment n. connection; confiscation; file sent via email attain v. to reach; to achieve; to fulfill; to realize (a goal, purpose, etc.) Forms: plural: attachments Forms: attained; attained; attaining attainment n. achievement; fulfillment; ability Forms: plural: attainments attempt n. try; assay; test; trial Forms: plural: attempts attempt attainment248. 247. attempt v. to try to; to assay attend v. to be present in a place; to care for; to serve; to accompany Forms: attempted; attempted; attempting Forms: attended; attended; attending attend attempt250. 249. attendant attendance252. 251. 15 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words attendance n. being physically present; act of accompanying or serving Forms: no plural attendee attendant254. 253. attendant n. steward; stewardess; person who serves others; person who accompanies others Forms: plural: attendants attendant adj. present; opposite of absent; accompanying attendee n. person who takes part in a particular event such as a conference or seminar; participant Forms: plural: attendees attention n. concentration; consideration; focus; care; acknowledgment; recognition Forms: no plural attentiveness n. concentration; ability to concentrate on an issue Forms: no plural attire n. dress; clothing; apparel Forms: no plural attentive adj. concentrated; focused; observant; polite; caring attire attentiveness258. 257. attentive attention256. 255. attire v. to dress; to put on clothes Forms: attired; attired; attiring attitude n. position; opinion; viewpoint; outlook; perspective Forms: plural: attitudes attitude attire260. 259. attn. abbr. directed to a particular person (generally used when addressing a letter or message) or issue Forms: attention Forms: plural: attorneys attorney n. lawyer; barrister; advocate; solicitor attorney attn.262. 261. attract v. to draw attention; to captivate; to fascinate Forms: attracted; attracted; attracting attribute n. quality; factor; characteristic; feature Forms: plural: attributes attribute attract264. 263. attribute v. to ascribe to; to link to; to associate with; to relate to auction n. public sale where goods are sold to the highest bidder (such as eBay) Forms: attributed; attributed; attributing Forms: plural: auctions auction attribute266. 265. audience auction268. 267. 16 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words auction v. to sell something through a bidding system Forms: auctioned; auctioned; auctioning audit audio270. 269. audience n. group of people who attend a seminar, a talk, etc. Forms: plural: audience audio adj. pertaining to hearing and listening; sound audit n. examination of financial accounts; internal investigation Forms: plural: audits audit v. to examine accounts and other financial records auditorium n. large room used for lectures; talks, performances and other events Forms: audited; audited; auditing Forms: plural: auditoriums auditorium audit272. 271. augment v. to increase; to enlarge; to enhance; to multiply Forms: augmented; augmented; augmenting authority n. official institution; agency; power; control; jurisdiction Forms: plural: authorities authority augment274. 273. authorize v. to permit; to approve; to empower Forms: authorized; authorized; authorizing autograph v. to write one's name by hand; to sign one's name Forms: autographed; autographed; autographing autograph authorize276. 275. autograph n. a person's handwritten signature Forms: plural: autographs automobile n. car; vehicle; ride Forms: plural: automobiles automobile autograph278. 277. avail v. to be useful; to help; to facilitate Forms: availed; availed; availing avail n. advantage; profit; help; benefit Forms: plural: avails avail avail280. 279. availability n. accessibility; attainability; obtainability availability float n. the time or amount of money that defined by checks that have been deposited but not cleared yet Forms: no plural Forms: plural: availability floats float availability availability282. 281. available adj. ready for use; attainable; present; vail average adj. immediate; common; usual; standard average available284. 283. average average286. 285. 17 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net A 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words average n. mean; median Forms: plural: averages award avoid288. 287. average v. to have a mean of a certain amount Forms: averaged; averaged; averaging avoid happening; to evade Forms: avoided; avoided; avoiding Forms: plural: awards award v. to escape; to keep away from; to prevent; to keep from n. prize; grant; arbitration award v. to give; to grant; to judge; to rule Forms: awarded; awarded; awarding awareness n. consciousness Forms: no plural awesome adj. impressive; inspiring; great; frightening aware adj. attentive; conscious of awesome awareness292. 291. aware award290. 289. 18 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net B back back2. B1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words back n. part of a chair; rear part of the human body Forms: plural: backs back back4. 3. back v. to support; to assist; to strengthen Forms: backed; backed; backing back adj. behind; after; rear; hind back adv. to the rear; to the past back door n. the U.S. treasury back order n. ordered merchandise that is not currently in stock but will be supplied in the future Forms: no plural Forms: plural: back orders order back door6. back 5. back up v. to support; to solidify; to strengthen Forms: backed up; backed up; backing up background n. setting; biography Forms: plural: backgrounds background up8. back 7. backlash n. rebound; recoiling; sudden movement to the rear backup n. copying of data for safety purposes; substitute; reserve; spare Forms: plural: backlashes Forms: plural: backups backup backlash10. 9. badge n. tag; sign; identification tag Forms: plural: badges baggage n. luggage; cargo; things to take on a trip; equipment Forms: no plural baggage badge12. 11. balance v. to make equal Forms: balanced; balanced; balancing balance n. leveling; harmony; stability; rest; remainder Forms: plural: balances balance balance14. 13. bank depend upon Forms: banked; banked; banking Forms: plural: banks bank bank bank16. 15. v. to deposit money; in a money institution; to count on; to n. institution for saving and borrowing money; cashier bank draft n. check Forms: plural: bank drafts banknote n. bill; money made of paper Forms: plural: banknotes banknote draft18. bank 17. bankrupt bankrupt20. 19. 19 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net B 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words bankrupt adj. lacking; deficient; insolvent; unable to pay debts bankrupt n. a person who was unable to repay their debts Forms: plural: bankrupts bankrupt v. to ruin financially; to go bust; to go broke; to collapse bankruptcy n. state of losing property to one's creditor's due to unpaid debts; insolvency Forms: bankrupted; bankrupted; bankrupting Forms: plural: bankruptcies bankruptcy bankrupt22. 21. banquet n. celebration; feast; dinner; drinking Forms: plural: banquets banquet v. to hold a party; to feast; to dine; to drink Forms: banqueted; banqueted; banqueting banquet banquet24. 23. barbed wire n. metal cord with sharp projecting points Forms: plural: barbed wires bargain n. good deal; agreement; item that has been bought at a specially low price Forms: plural: bargains Forms: bargained; bargained; bargaining bargain v. to negotiate; to arrive at an agreement barely adv. hardly; scarcely bargain bargain28. 27. barely wire26. barbed 25. barometer n. commercial and market information that indicates overall economic trends Forms: plural: barometers Forms: no plural barren capital n. money which is not generating profit capital barren barometer30. 29. barrier n. border; limit; obstacle; barricade Forms: plural: barriers barter n. exchanging of goods and services; trade Forms: plural: barters barter barrier32. 31. barter v. to exchange goods and services Forms: bartered; bartered; bartering base v. to establish; to found; to set up; to place on Forms: based; based; basing base barter34. 33. base base36. 35. 20 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net B 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words base adj. low; despicable; ignoble base n. foundation; principal element; fundamental part Forms: plural: bases basis n. foundation; grounding Forms: no plural bearer n. person who holds a money order Forms: plural: bearers bearer basis38. 37. bearer instrument n. a signed money order which is payable on demand to the holder Forms: plural: bearer instruments Forms: became; become; becoming become v. to turn into; to develop into; to grow into become instrument40. bearer 39. becoming adj. appropriate; noble behalf n. representing; in support of Forms: no plural behavio(u)r n. manner of acting; conduct Forms: plural: behavio(u)rs behind n. rear; end; seat Forms: plural: behinds behind behavio(u)r44. 43. behalf becoming42. 41. behind adv. late; tardy behind prep. after; in back of behind behind46. 45. beige book n. report on current economic conditions, published by the Federal Reserve Board Forms: plural: beige books Forms: plural: beliefs belief n. opinion; creed; religion; faith; conviction belief book48. beige 47. believe v. to have faith in; to assume; to suppose Forms: believed; believed; believing below adv. at a further point benchmark n. criterion; measure; point of reference for comparison Forms: plural: benchmarks below prep. under; beneath; underneath beneath beneath54. 53. benchmark below52. 51. below believe50. 49. 21 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net B 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words beneath prep. under; underneath beneficial beneficent56. 55. beneath adv. under; below beneficent adj. kind; good beneficial adj. advantageous; pleasurable; enjoyable benefit v. to profit; to gain; to be advantageous Forms: benefited; benefited; benefiting benefit n. advantage; profit; aid; stipend Forms: plural: benefits benefit benefit58. 57. between prep. intermediate to; common; shared between adv. amid; in the middle between between60. 59. beverage n. drink; refreshment Forms: plural: beverages beyond adv. past; further than bias v. to prejudice; to influence opinions Forms: biased; biased; biasing bias n. prejudice; tendency; leaning Forms: plural: biases bill v. to charge; to announce; to advertise Forms: billed; billed; billing beyond prep. further; more distant bill bias66. 65. bias beyond64. 63. beyond beverage62. 61. bill n. banknote; invoice; proposed law Forms: plural: bills birth rate n. number of babies that are born per year per thousand Forms: plural: birth rates rate birth bill68. 67. blame v. to accuse; to denounce Forms: blamed; blamed; blaming blame n. guilt; responsibility; liability Forms: plural: blames blame blame70. 69. blanket v. to cover; to coat Forms: blanketed; blanketed; blanketing blanket adj. comprehensive; inclusive laws sky blue blanket74. 73. blanket blanket72. 71. 22 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net B 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words blanket n. bed covering; quilt blue sky laws n. rules introduced by the government to regulate the trade of securities and mutual funds Forms: plural: blankets blunder blunder76. 75. Forms: only plural blunder n. gross error; stupid mistake blunder v. to make a stupid mistake; to move back and forth in a clumsy manner Forms: plural: blunders Forms: blundered; blundered; blundering board n. management committee; food board v. to accommodate; to house; to enter (a plane, ship, bus, etc.) Forms: plural: boards Forms: boarded; boarded; boarding board board78. 77. boiler room n. a fraud scheme involving cold calling Forms: plural: boiler rooms bond v. to store in a warehouse Forms: bonded; bonded; bonding bond room80. boiler 79. bond n. link; connection; obligation; grasp; certificate of debt Forms: plural: bonds bonus n. dividend; perk; monetary gift Forms: plural: bonuses book v. to record; to order in advance; to inscribe; to indicate Forms: booked; booked; booking bonded adj. secured in a warehouse book bonus84. 83. bonded bond82. 81. book n. printed work which is bound together; bundle Forms: plural: books bookcase n. shelves used to store printed items Forms: plural: bookcases bookcase book86. 85. boost v. to raise; to push; to urge; to lift Forms: boosted; boosted; boosting boost n. push; lift; incentive; encouragement Forms: plural: boosts boost boost88. 87. border border90. 89. 23 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net B 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words border v. to be adjacent to Forms: bordered; bordered; bordering bother borrow92. 91. border n. boundary; edge; limit Forms: plural: borders borrow v. to take on loan; to copy; to steal bother v. to annoy; to harass; to worry; to make an effort; to be concerned Forms: borrowed; borrowed; borrowing Forms: bothered; bothered; bothering bother n. effort; nuisance Forms: plural: bothers bottom n. base; foot; seat of a chair bottom v. to establish; to construct; to base; to provide a foundation Forms: plural: bottoms Forms: bottomed; bottomed; bottoming bothersome adj. annoying; irritating bottom bottom96. 95. bothersome bother94. 93. bottom adj. lower; under bound n. limit; border Forms: plural: bounds bound v. to jump; to leap Forms: bounded; bounded; bounding box v. to fight with fists; to put crates Forms: boxed; boxed; boxing box n. case; crate; punch; hit Forms: plural: boxes bound adj. obligated; certain; fastened; tied box box102. 101. bound bound100. 99. bound bottom98. 97. brake v. to stop a vehicle; to slow down a vehicle Forms: braked; braked; braking brake n. device which is used to slow or stop a vehicle Forms: plural: brakes brake brake104. 103. branch branch106. 105. 24 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net B 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words branch v. to fork; to divide into parts or sections Forms: branched; branched; branching brand brand108. 107. branch n. affiliate; office; industry; trade; business unit Forms: plural: branches brand v. to mark with an iron; to disgrace; to condemn Forms: branded; branded; branding brand n. trademark; type; make; variety; product name Forms: plural: brands breadth n. width; broadness Forms: plural: breaths break v. to shatter; to crack; to be cut off; to cancel Forms: broke; broken; breaking break breadth110. 109. break n. fracture; pause; rest; opportunity; alteration Forms: plural: breaks break down v. to fail; to collapse; to defeat; to overthrow; to descend Forms: broke down; broken down; breaking down down break break112. 111. breakdown n. collapse; crash; incident breakthrough n. progress; reaching a new level; removal of a barrier; penetration Forms: plural: break downs Forms: plural: breakthroughs breakthrough breakdown114. 113. brief n. abstract; summary; concise report; instructions brief v. to make a summary; to give a report; to inform; to instruct somebody Forms: plural: briefs Forms: briefed; briefed; briefing brief brief116. 115. brief adj. short; concise briefcase n. small container for documents; tool for synchronizing files between two computers Forms: plural: briefcases briefing n. short meeting; summarizing; giving and receiving instructions; reporting Forms: plural: briefings Forms: broadcast; broadcast; broadcasting broadcast v. to transmit over the radio; to publicize; to advertise broadcast briefing120. 119. briefcase brief118. 117. brochure broadcast122. 121. 25 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net B 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words broadcast n. transmission; dispatch; radio program Forms: plural: broadcasts broker broker124. 123. brochure n. leaflet; booklet; printed product information Forms: plural: brochures broker v. to act as a middleman; to buy and to sell property for other people Forms: brokered; brokered; brokering broker n. middleman; agent who buys and sells property or shares etc. for other people Forms: plural: brokers brokered adj. negotiated by an intermediary; settled through a middleman Forms: browsed; browsed; browsing browser n. program used for viewing websites on the Internet Forms: plural: browsers bubble n. blister; gas-filled sac Forms: plural: bubbles browse v. to leaf through a book; to surf Internet websites bubble browser128. 127. browse brokered126. 125. budge v. to move; to be moved Forms: budged; budged; budging budget n. financial framework; financial plan Forms: plural: budgets budget budge130. 129. budget v. to prepare a financial plan; to make financial arrangements Forms: budgeted; budgeted; budgeting build v. to construct; to create; to increase intensity; to energize Forms: built; built; building Forms: plural: buildings building n. house; dwelling; structure; premises budget adj. inexpensive; cheap; of or relating to a financial plan building build134. 133. budget budget132. 131. bulk n. volume; mass; main part; most Forms: plural: bulks bulk v. to inflate; to play an important role Forms: bulked; bulked; bulking bulk bulk136. 135. transfer bulk bulk138. 137. 26 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net B 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words bulk adj. relating to or designed for the mass of people; largescale; widespread; popular bulk transfer n. the sale of all or most of a company's inventory or assets to another company Forms: plural: bulk transfers bullion n. bars of gold; bars of silver Forms: no plural business n. company; enterprise; trade; commerce; issue Forms: plural: businesses butcher n. meat cutter; meat slaughterer; owner of a meat shop Forms: plural: butchers buoyant adj. floating; light; lively; cheerful butcher business142. 141. buoyant bullion140. 139. button v. to fasten; to connect Forms: buttoned; buttoned; buttoning button n. switch; icon to click on Forms: plural: buttons button button144. 143. buyer n. person who purchases something; client; customer; shopper; purchaser Forms: plural: buyers buyer 145. 27 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C C.C.O. C.C.2. C1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words C.C. abbr. secondary email address; copy of a document, message, or email that is sent to a third party C.C.O. abbr. person who is responsible for ensuring that a company and its employees are in compliance with government regulations and internal policies Forms: carbon copy (cc, CC) C.F.O. C.E.O.4. 3. Forms: Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) C.E.O. abbr. head manager of a corporation, company or large organization Forms: Chief Executive Officer (CEO) C.F.O. abbr. treasurer; person who is responsible for all financial aspects of a company Forms: Chief Financial Officer (CFO) C.I.O. for a company's internal information systems Forms: Chief Information Officer (CIO) C.O.D. or goods Forms: cash on delivery (COD, c.o.d.) C.O.D. C.I.O.6. 5. abbr. Chief Information Officer; person who is responsible abbr. cash payment to be made upon receipt of products C.O.O. abbr. head manager of a company or large organization C.S.O. abbr. top executive rank; person who is responsible for the security of a company's communications and business systems Forms: Chief Operating Officer (COO) Forms: Chief Security Officer (CSO) C.S.O. C.O.O.8. 7. C.T.O. abbr. top executive rank; person who is responsible for research and development and possibly for new product plans Forms: Chief Technology Officer (CTO) Forms: Curriculum Vitae (CV) C.V. abbr. resume; chronological description of one's employment and educational history; biography C.V. C.T.O.10. 9. cab n. taxi; carriage; driver's compartment cabinet n. small room; piece of office furniture; office; part of a government Forms: plural: cabs Forms: plural: cabinets cabinet cab12. 11. calculate v. to estimate; to compute; to depend upon Forms: calculated; calculated; calculating calculator n. small machine that makes computations Forms: plural: calculators calculator calculate14. 13. calendar calendar16. 15. 28 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words calendar v. to write down in a timetable; to register calendar n. chart showing the months of a year (including days and weeks); schedule; timetable Forms: calendared; calendared; calendaring call call18. 17. Forms: plural: calendars call v. to invite; to speak loudly; to visit; to phone Forms: called; called; calling call n. telephone conversation; visit; invitation; claim; need Forms: plural: calls campaign v. to conduct a series of activities organized to accomplish a goal Forms: campaigned; campaigned; campaigning Forms: plural: campaigns campaign n. series of activities organized to accomplish a goal campaign campaign20. 19. cancel v. to call off; to annul; to terminate; to stop Forms: canceled; canceled; canceling cancellation n. nullification; termination; revocation Forms: plural: cancellations cancellation cancel22. 21. candid adj. honest; straightforward; open; frank candidate n. applicant; nominee; examinee Forms: plural: candidates canvass v. to examine; to debate; to scrutinize; to solicit votes or opinions Forms: canvassed, canvassed; canvassing Forms: no plural canvass n. examination; careful inspection; debate canvass canvass26. 25. candidate candid24. 23. capability n. ability; skill; trait; characteristic; quality Forms: plural: capabilities capacity n. volume which can be contained or received; function; role; feature; potential Forms: plural: capacities Forms: CAPital EXpenditures capex n. refers to the cost of developing a product or system capable adj. skilled; able; proficient; adept capex capacity30. 29. capable capability28. 27. capital capital32. 31. 29 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words capital n. property; financial means; assets; main city of a country of region Forms: plural: capitals capital adj. main; major; chief; principal capital requirement n. the level of monetary funding a company needs to run smoothly Forms: plural: capital requirements Forms: plural: capitalizations capitalization n. process of turning money into profit capitalization requirement34. capital 33. capitalize v. to turn into money; to turn profit; to finance Forms: capitalized; capitalized; capitalizing capture v. to copy; to photograph; to snapshot Forms: captured; captured; capturing capture capitalize36. 35. car n. automobile; elevator; vehicle; ride Forms: plural: cars card v. to ask for an identification (i.e. in a bar) Forms: carded; carded; carding card car38. 37. card n. thin and flat object care v. to be concerned with; to look out for; to watch over; to like; to be fond of Forms: plural: cards Forms: cared; cared; caring care card40. 39. care n. attention; concern; caution; supervision; management career v. to evolve; to make to progress; to grow professionally; to develop; to speed Forms: no plural Forms: careered; careered; careering career care42. 41. career n. profession; development; progress; gradual growth Forms: plural: careers cargo n. freight; luggage; baggage; load carpenter n. a person who makes things out of wood such as furniture Forms: plural: cargos Forms: plural: carpenters careful adj. cautious; particular; concentrated; meticulous carpenter cargo46. 45. careful career44. 43. carpet carpet48. 47. 30 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words carpet v. to cover or to furnish with textile materials; to reprimand; to scold Forms: carpeted; carpeted; carpeting carrier carriage50. 49. carpet n. rug; fabric floor covering Forms: plural: carpets carriage n. coach; buggy; transportation carrier n. person or company that ships things; shipping company; truck Forms: plural: carriages Forms: plural: carriers carry v. to transport; to continue; to bear carry out v. to put into practice; to accomplish; to perform; to conduct Forms: carried; carried; carrying Forms: carried out; carried out; carrying out out carry carry52. 51. cart v. to drag or to carry by force Forms: carted; carted; carting cart n. car; wagon; coach; carriage; trolley Forms: plural: carts cart cart54. 53. case v. to pack; to crate; to box Forms: cased; cased; casing case n. occasion; instance; situation; bag Forms: plural: cases case case56. 55. cash v. to exchange a check (or another money order) for coins and bank notes; to redeem Forms: cashed; cashed; cashing Forms: no plural cash n. money in the form of coins and bank notes cash cash58. 57. cash reserves n. bank deposits that are available on a short-term basis; treasury bills Forms: only plural Forms: plural: casts cast n. throw; team of actors; squint (of the eye) cast reserves60. cash 59. cast v. to throw; to project; to form; to shape Forms: cast; cast; casting catalog n. itemized list; index; directory Forms: plural: catalogs catalog cast62. 61. categorize catalog64. 63. 31 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words catalog v. to make an itemized list; to index; to classify Forms: cataloged; cataloged; cataloging cater category66. 65. categorize v. to arrange in groups; to classify; to sort; to structure Forms: categorized; categorized; categorizing category n. class; division; section; segment Forms: plural: categories cater v. to provide; to supply (food, etc.); to care for Forms: catered; catered; catering catering n. business of supplying and servicing food cause n. reason; purpose; principle; factor; basis for a legal case Forms: plural: caterings Forms: plural: causes cause catering68. 67. cause v. to make happen; to bring about Forms: caused; caused; causing caution n. notice; warning; caveat; carefulness; premonition Forms: no plural caution cause70. 69. caution v. to warn; to notify of danger Forms: cautioned; cautioned; cautioning caveat n. caution; warning; admonition; suspension of proceedings (law) Forms: plural: caveats cement v. to reinforce; to bind together; to strengthen a connection Forms: cemented; cemented; cementing cautious adj. careful; wary; suspicious cement caveat74. 73. cautious caution72. 71. cement n. concrete; mortar; bonding agent; filling (for teeth) Forms: no plural central n. telephone exchange; operator; main bureau or office Forms: plural: centrals century n. period of one hundred years Forms: plural: centuries central adj. main; principal; major century central78. 77. central cement76. 75. certain ceremony80. 79. 32 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words ceremony n. rite; ritual; formality Forms: plural: ceremonies certain adj. sure; definite; particular; specific certainly adv. of course; surely; doubtlessly; definitely; absolutely certificate n. official document; license; reference; attestation Forms: plural: certificates certificate v. to confirm; to license; to authorize Forms: certificated; certificated; certificating certify v. to confirm to be true; to authorize Forms: certified; certified; certifying certify certificate84. 83. certificate certainly82. 81. chain n. group of stores, outlets, banks etc., under one management Forms: plural: chains Forms: chained; chained; chaining chain v. to tie down chain chain86. 85. challenge handle difficult tasks Forms: plural: challenges challenge test one's ability Forms: challenged; challenged; challenging challenge challenge88. 87. n. difficult situation; something which tests one's ability to v. to dare; to invite to engage in a contest; to stimulate; to change n. replacement; alteration; shift; coins; money received back after paying for goods Forms: plural: changes Forms: changed; changed; changing change v. to alter; to replace; to become different change change90. 89. changeable adj. arbitrary; fickle; flexible chapter n. part of a book; phase; stage; local branch of an organization Forms: plural: chapters character n. nature; disposition; attitude; figure; person; statement of qualities Forms: plural: characters Forms: plural: characteristics characteristic n. trait; feature; ability; distinguishing quality; attribute characteristic character94. 93. chapter changeable92. 91. characterize characteristic96. 95. 33 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words characteristic adj. typical; distinctive characterize v. to describe; to depict; to portray; to outline Forms: characterized; characterized; characterizing charge n. price; cargo; responsibility Forms: plural: charges charge v. to entrust; to order; to command; to supply with power Forms: charged; charged; charging charge charge98. 97. chart n. graph; diagram Forms: plural: charts chart v. to make a graph; to draw; to diagram Forms: charted; charted; charting chart chart100. 99. cheap adj. opposite of expensive; inexpensive cheap adv. inexpensively cheap cheap102. 101. check n. examination; money order; payment order; restaurant bill Forms: plural: checks Forms: checked; checked; checking check v. to examine; to investigate; to inspect; to scrutinize check check104. 103. chef n. professional cook; head cook in a restaurant of hotel cheque n. written order directing a bank to pay a specific amount of money Forms: plural: chefs Forms: plural: cheques cheque chef106. 105. choice n. option; selection; variety Forms: plural: choices choose v. to select; to prefer; to pick; to make a choice Forms: chose; chose; chosen chop n. seal; trademark Forms: plural: chops choice adj. select; fine; excellent chop choose110. 109. choice choice108. 107. chop v. to cut; to cut down; to cut into pieces; to mince Forms: chopped; chopped; chopping chore n. routine job; unpleasant task Forms: plural: chores chore chop112. 111. circle circle114. 113. 34 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words circle v. to surround circle n. ring-shaped geometric figure; round figure; group; society Forms: circled; circled; circling circumstance circumspect116. 115. Forms: plural: circles circumspect adj. careful; cautious circumstance v. to place in particular situations Forms: circumstanced; circumstanced; circumstancing circumstance n. condition; influencing factor; situation Forms: plural: circumstances circumvent v. to by-pass; to side-step; to evade Forms: circumvented; circumvented; circumventing circumvent circumstance118. 117. citation n. quotation; official praise; summons to a court of law Forms: plural: citations citizen n. resident; native of a country Forms: plural: citizens citizen citation120. 119. citizenship n. right to live in a country; condition of being a member of a country Forms: plural: citizenships Forms: plural: cities city n. town; large urban area city citizenship122. 121. civic adj. pertaining to a city; pertaining to citizenship claim n. lawsuit; request; right Forms: plural: claims clarify v. to make clear; to explain classify v. to arrange systematically; to structure; to group; to sort; to make confidential Forms: clarified; clarified; clarifying Forms: classified; classified; classifying classify clarify126. 125. claim civic124. 123. clause n. paragraph; section in a document; part of a contract Forms: plural: clauses clear v. to clarify; to explain; to approve Forms: cleared; cleared; clearing clear clause128. 127. clear clear130. 129. 35 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words clear adj. pure; obvious; easy to understand; comprehensible clear n. deletion; act of unmarking; removal of a mark from a check box (Computers) Forms: no plural clearance n. release; approval; washing Forms: no plural clerk v. to work as an employee (i.e. in the legal or bank business) Forms: clerked; clerked; clerking Forms: plural: clerks clerk n. minor office worker; book-keeper; bureaucrat clearly adv. obviously; apparently; unmistakably clerk clerk134. 133. clearly clearance132. 131. client n. customer; buyer; computer that serves as a terminal climate n. weather conditions; surrounding conditions; atmosphere; setting Forms: plural: clients Forms: plural: climates climate client136. 135. climb v. to ascend; to up; to slope upward; to move upward gradually Forms: climbed; climbed; climbing Forms: plural: climbs climb n. ascent climb climb138. 137. clip v. to cut off; to curtail; to trim off Forms: clipped; clipped; clipping clip n. clamp; fastener; shred; segment of video Forms: plural: clips clip clip140. 139. clipping n. article cut from a newspaper Forms: plural: clippings clock v. to measure time; to register on a time piece Forms: clocked; clocked; clocking clock clipping142. 141. clock n. timepiece; device for telling time Forms: plural: clocks close adv. nearby close close146. 145. close clock144. 143. 36 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words close n. end; conclusion; plug Forms: plural: closes clout close148. 147. close v. to shut; to be shut; to finish; to complete Forms: closed; closed; closing close adj. near; adjacent; careful clout n. pull; influence; power; weight Forms: plural: clouts coach v. to train; to teach; to instruct; to guide; to counsel Forms: coached; coached; coaching coach n. trainer; tutor; teacher; bus Forms: plural: coaches coach coach150. 149. coal n. fuel made from carbon; cinder; ember Forms: plural: coals coalition n. alliance; union; agreement Forms: plural: coalitions coalition coal152. 151. code v. to cipher Forms: coded; coded; coding code n. cipher; collection of instructions of the law Forms: plural: codes code code154. 153. cognition n. awareness; perception Forms: plural: cognitions cohesive adj. sticking together; forming a unit or union; united; related to each other Forms: coined; coined; coining coin n. metal money; piece of stamped metal currency (as opposed to paper bills) Forms: plural: coins Forms: plural: coincidences coincidence n. chance occurrence; unforeseen event coin v. to mint; to invent a new word or phrase coherent adj. sticking together; consistent coincidence coin160. 159. coin cohesive158. 157. coherent cognition156. 155. collaboration collaborate162. 161. 37 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words collaborate v. to work together; to cooperate Forms: collaborated; collaborated; collaborating collateral collate164. 163. collaboration n. working together; cooperation Forms: plural: collaborations collate v. to compare in a critical manner; to verify; to collect; to compile Forms: collated; collated; collating collateral n. security deposit Forms: plural: collaterals colleague n. fellow worker; cowoker Forms: plural: colleagues collateral adj. of secondary importance; insignificant; corresponding colleague collateral166. 165. collect collect take payments Forms: collected; collected; collecting collectible adj. payable; subject to or requiring payment especially as specified Forms: plural: collectibles collection n. selection; choice; assortment; accumulation college n. institution of higher education that grants degrees; type of school; council Forms: plural: collections Forms: plural: colleges collectible n. rare object collect collect168. 167. adj. having the receiver pay the charges (for a phone call) v. to gather; to garner; to assemble; to accumulate; to college collection172. 171. collectible collectible170. 169. collide v. to crash; to meet head on; to come together with solid or direct impact Forms: collided; collided; colliding combination n. joining; union; an ordered sequence Forms: plural: combinations combine v. to unite; to join; to come together; to become one Forms: combined; combined; combining colloquial adj. conversational; not used in formal speaking or writing; informal combine combination176. 175. colloquial collide174. 173. across come combine178. 177. 38 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words combine n. harvesting machine Forms: plural: combines comfort along180. come 179. come across v. to happen upon; to find by chance; to discover; to see Forms: came across; come across; coming across come along v. to accompany someone; to appear; to advance; to succeed Forms: came along; come along; coming along Forms: comforted; comforted; comforting comfort v. to bring relief; to encourage; to console comfort n. relief; consolation; coziness Forms: no plural comforting adj. consoling; encouraging; reassuring; brining relief; heartening Forms: commanded; commanded; commanding command n. order; direction; control; domination; headquarters comment v. to make a remark; to explain; to write an explanatory note Forms: plural: commands Forms: commented; commented; commenting command v. to rule; to control; to be in charge; to be in authority comfortable adj. easy; relaxing; cosy; financially well to do comment command186. 185. command comforting184. 183. comfortable comfort182. 181. comment n. remark; note; statement; explanation commentary n. series of remarks; explanation (often written in essay or book form) Forms: plural: comments Forms: plural: commentaries commentary comment188. 187. commerce n. trade; business; transactions; exchange of products/services and money Forms: no plural commercial n. television or radio advertisement Forms: plural: commercials commission v. to contract; to empower; to authorize; to confer Forms: commissioned; commissioned; commissioning commercial adj. pertaining to business; pertaining to buying and selling commission commercial192. 191. commercial commerce190. 189. commit commission194. 193. 39 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words commission n. percentage of profits earned by a salesperson Forms: plural: commissions committed commitment196. 195. commit v. to perform; to do; to engage Forms: committed; committed; committing commitment n. obligation; promise Forms: plural: commitments commodity n. merchandise; goods; item that is bought and sold; something useful Forms: plural: commodities common n. open public area in a city or town; park; square communication n. exchange of information or ideas; transfer; passing along; letter; message Forms: plural: commons Forms: plural: communications common adj. shared; ordinary; mediocre; average; public committed adj. obligated; engaged; industrious; ambitious; loyal communication common200. 199. common commodity198. 197. commute v. to exchange; to replace; to convert; to travel back and forth regularly (i.e. to work) Forms: commuted; commuted; commuting commuter n. person who travels back and forth between home and work Forms: plural: commuters commuter commute202. 201. company n. corporation; firm; ensemble; association with another Forms: plural: companies compare consider to be similar Forms: compared; compared; comparing Forms: plural: compares compare comparatively adv. relatively compare compare206. 205. comparatively company204. 203. v. to show how (people or things) are alike or different; to n. contrast comparison n. pointing out of similarities and differences; similarity; likeness Forms: plural: comparisons Forms: compartmentalized; compartmentalized; compartmentalizing compartmentalize v. to separate into sections; to partition compatible compatible210. 209. compartmentalize comparison208. 207. 40 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words compatible adj. congruous compatible n. piece of equipment which can be used with other machines without alternation Forms: plural: compatibles compel v. to force; to coerce; to influence; to impose; to demand Forms: compelled; compelled; compelling compensate v. to reward; to reimburse; to pay back; to make up for Forms: compensated; compensated; compensating compensate compel212. 211. compensation n. repayment; something done to make up for (a loss, deficiency or fault) Forms: plural: compensations compete v. to contest; to contend against another; to participate in a contest Forms: competed; competed; competing compete compensation214. 213. competent adj. adept; capable; suitably skilled; well qualified; experienced Forms: plural: competitions competitive adj. involving rivalry; tending to contest competitor n. rival; (i.e. Coca Cola and Pepsi); person who participates in a contest Forms: plural: competitors complacent adj. content; self-satisfied; comfortable; smug complain v. to find fault; to express displeasure; to protest Forms: complained; complained; complaining complaint n. finding fault; act of expressing displeasure; pleading entered by a plaintiff (Law) Forms: plural: complaints complete v. to make whole; to finish; to perfect Forms: completed; completed; completing completion n. finishing; finalizing Forms: no plural complete adj. whole; perfect; finished competition n. rivalry; contest; act of competing against another completion complete224. 223. complete complaint222. 221. complain complacent220. 219. competitor competitive218. 217. competition competent216. 215. compliant complex226. 225. 41 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words complex n. compound; various objects that for m a unit Forms: plural: complexes compliant adj. obedient; submissive; obliging; yielding; acquiescent complicate v. to confuse; to make hard to understand; to make difficult; to make complex Forms: complicated; complicated; complicating compliment n. expression of admiration; word of praise for someone Forms: plural: compliments comply v. to submit; to consent; to obey; to agree with Forms: complied; complied; complying complicated adj. confusing; hard to understand; difficult; complex comply compliment230. 229. complicated complicate228. 227. component n. ingredient; single piece which forms part of a larger unit; part; constituent; element Forms: plural: components Forms: composed; composed; composing compose v. to create; to write; to relax; to calm oneself; to settle compose component232. 231. composition n. make-up; constitution; essay Forms: plural: compositions composure n. serenity; self-control; calmness; coolness Forms: no plural composure composition234. 233. comprehend v. to understand; to contain; to grasp; to absorb; to perceive Forms: comprehended; comprehended; comprehending comprise v. to include; to contain; to consist Forms: comprised; comprised; comprising compromise v. to establish an agreement; to settle a dispute Forms: compromised; compromised; compromising comprehensive adj. including a lot; large in scope; extensive compromise comprise238. 237. comprehensive comprehend236. 235. compromise n. agreement; settling of a disagreement by making mutual concessions Forms: plural: compromises Forms: computed; computed; computing compute v. to calculate; to figure; to estimate compute compromise240. 239. conceive conceal242. 241. 42 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words conceal v. to hide; to keep secret; to cover up Forms: concealed; concealed; concealing concept concentrate244. 243. conceive v. to understand; to comprehend; to grasp Forms: conceived; conceived; conceiving concentrate v. to focus; to pay attention Forms: concentrated; concentrated; concentrating concept n. plan; idea; thought; structure; system Forms: plural: concepts conceptualize v. to plan; to design; to imagine; to conceive; to envision Forms: conceptualized; conceptualized; conceptualizing concern v. to involve; to affect; to worry; to interest; to relate to Forms: concerned; concerned; concerning concern conceptualize246. 245. concern n. worry; issue; problem; group of companies; large corporation Forms: plural: concerns conclude v. to finish; to infer; to deduce; to make a decision Forms: concluded; concluded; concluding conclusion n. end; deduction; cognition; final decision Forms: plural: conclusions concerning prep. about conclusion conclude250. 249. concerning concern248. 247. concoct v. to invent; to create; to contrive; to think up Forms: concocted; concocted; concocting concrete n. cement; something tangible (idea, object, etc.) Forms: no plural concrete v. to solidify Forms: concreted; concreted; concreting concrete adj. tangible; real; substantial; solid concrete concrete254. 253. concrete concoct252. 251. concur v. to agree; to harmonize; to coincide; to collaborate; to consent Forms: concurred; concurred; concurring Forms: plural: conditions condition n. situation; requirement; circumstance; stipulation condition concur256. 255. conduct condition258. 257. 43 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words condition v. to train; to accustom; to adapt; to stipulate; to prepare Forms: conditioned; conditioned; conditioning conference conduct260. 259. conduct n. behavior; management Forms: no plural conduct v. to behave; to manage; to carry out; to transmit Forms: conducted; conducted; conducting conference n. meeting; seminar; convention Forms: plural: conferences confidence n. trust; certainty; faith in oneself; secret Forms: no plural confidential adj. classified; secret; strictly private confirm v. to approve; to verify; to ascertain Forms: confirmed; confirmed; confirming confirmation n. formal approval; proof; verification; religious ceremony confuse v. to embarrass; to mix up; to muddle up; to bewilder; to startle Forms: plural: confirmations Forms: confused; confused; confusing confident adj. certain; sure of oneself; composed confuse confirmation266. 265. confirm confidential264. 263. confident confidence262. 261. confusion n. disorder; embarrassment; bewilderment Forms: plural: confusions conjunction n. connection; link; uniting; joining Forms: plural: conjunctions conjure v. to appeal; to summon; to invoke; to implore Forms: conjured; conjured; conjuring congruent adj. identical; corresponding; in agreement; harmonious conjure conjunction270. 269. congruent confusion268. 267. connote v. to imply; to suggest; to hint Forms: connoted; connoted; connoting conscientiously adv. dutifully; with care; thoroughly conscious adj. aware; awake; attentive conscientious adj. careful; wanting to do what is right conscious conscientiously274. 273. conscientious connote272. 271. consciousness consciously276. 275. 44 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words consciously adv. knowingly; with awareness consciousness n. awareness; cognition; ability to perceive Forms: no plural consecutive adj. sequential; following one after another consequently adv. as a result; therefore consequently consecutive278. 277. conservative adj. resisting change; desiring to preserve traditions; cautious conservative n. person who is resistant to change; person who favors traditional political parties Forms: plural: conservatives conserve v. to protect; to guard from harm Forms: conserved; conserved; conserving conserve n. marmalade; jam Forms: plural: conserves conserve conserve282. 281. conservative conservative280. 279. consider v. to think over; to believe; to regard; to take into account consideration n. payment; thoughtfulness; respectfulness; careful attention Forms: considered; considered; considering Forms: plural: considerations consideration consider284. 283. considering prep. taking into account; in light of consignment n. delivery; dispatch; conveyance Forms: plural: consignments consist v. to be composed of; to be made up of consistency n. material coherence; firmness; persistence; steadfastness Forms: consisted; consisted; consisting Forms: no plural consistency consist288. 287. consignment considering286. 285. consistent adj. coherent; steadfast; firm consistently adv. regularly; persistently; steadily; stably consistently consistent290. 289. consortium n. partnership; association Forms: plural: consortiums constant n. number with a fixed value; factor Forms: plural: constants constant consortium292. 291. constrain constant294. 293. 45 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words constant adj. firm; faithful; persistent; unbending; adamant constrain v. to compel; to reinforce; to oblige; to coerce Forms: constrained; constrained; constraining constraint n. restriction; force; limitation; limit Forms: plural: constraints construction n. building; structure; the industry of erecting buildings Forms: plural: constructions construction constraint296. 295. construe v. to interpret; to see; to perceive consultancy n. the practice of giving expert advice within a particular field Forms: construed; construed; construing Forms: plural: consultancies consultancy construe298. 297. consultant n. advisor (adviser); counselor; coach; person who gives professional advice Forms: plural: consultants Forms: consumed; consumed; consuming consume v. to eat or drink; to use up; to destroy consume consultant300. 299. consumer n. buyer; client Forms: plural: consumers consumption n. using up Forms: no plural consumption consumer302. 301. contact v. to establish communication; to make a connection; to link to; to connect with Forms: contacted; contacted; contacting Forms: plural: contacts contact n. link; connection; touch; interface contact contact304. 303. contain v. to include; to hold back; to restrain; to keep under control Forms: contained; contained; containing contemporary content contemporary adj. modern; current content contemporary308. 307. contemporary contain306. 305. n. person living at about the same time as another person adj. satisfied; pleased Forms: plural: contemporaries content content310. 309. 46 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words content n. substance; component; all that is inside of something Forms: plural: contents contest contest312. 311. content v. to satisfy; to please; to meet a request Forms: contented; contented; contenting contest v. to fight for; to challenge; to appeal Forms: contested; contested; contesting contest n. competition Forms: plural: contests context n. connection; overall situation; background continue v. to go on; to keep doing something; to last; to perpetuate Forms: plural: contexts Forms: continued; continued; continuing continue context314. 313. continuity n. stability; consistency; continuousness; unbroken succession Forms: no plural contract v. to create a formal agreement; to bind legally; to obtain Forms: contracted; contracted; contracting contract n. agreement; pact; deal Forms: plural: contracts continuous adj. successive; uninterrupted; permanent contract contract318. 317. continuous continuity316. 315. contractor n. person or company that does a particular job or assignment Forms: plural: contractors contrary n. something which is opposite Forms: plural: contraries contrive v. to devise; to invent; to dream up; to design (often in a negative way) Forms: contrived; contrived; contriving Forms: plural: controls control n. rule; command; supervision; restraint contrary adj. opposed contrary adv. in opposition; against; counter control contrive324. 323. contrary contrary322. 321. contrary contractor320. 319. convenience controlling326. 325. 47 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words controlling adj. ruling; supervising; regulating; managing; restraining convenience n. comfort; fitness or suitability for performing an action Forms: plural: conveniences convenient adj. comfortable; useful; serviceable convention n. conference; routine; custom; treaty Forms: plural: conventions conventional adj. customary; routine; formal converge v. to meet; to assemble to gather; to get together Forms: converged; converged; converging conversant adj. well-versed; proficient; skilled conversation n. talk; dialog; discussion; verbal exchange Forms: plural: conversations convey v. to carry; to impart or to communicate by statement, suggestion, gesture or appearance Forms: conveyed; conveyed; conveying conveyance n. the act of transferring a property title from one person to another Forms: plural: conveyances conveyance convey334. 333. conversation conversant332. 331. converge conventional330. 329. convention convenient328. 327. conviction n. acknowledgment; strong persuasion or belief; condemnation Forms: plural: convictions Forms: convinced; convinced; convincing convince v. to persuade; to influence; to prove convince conviction336. 335. cook v. to prepare food by heating; to falsify account records Forms: cooked; cooked; cooking cook n. a person who prepares food Forms: plural: cooks cook cook338. 337. cooperation n. collaboration; working together Forms: plural: cooperations coordinate adj. equal; equivalent; of equal rank or authority coordinate coordinate342. 341. coordinate cooperation340. 339. 48 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words coordinate n. reference point; geographical location Forms: plural: coordinates copy cope344. 343. coordinate v. to arrange in proper order Forms: coordinated; coordinated; coordinating cope v. to manage in spite of difficulty; to struggle successfully Forms: coped; coped; coping copy v. to duplicate; to imitate Forms: copied; copied; copying copy n. duplicate; photostat Forms: plural: copies corner v. to hold at bay; to gain advantage on the market; to approach; to catch; to trap Forms: cornered; cornered; cornering Forms: plural: corners corner n. place where two surfaces meet; angle cordially adv. in a friendly manner; warmly corner corner348. 347. cordially copy346. 345. corp. abbr. large company; firm; business Forms: corporation correct adj. right; proper; exact; accurate correct v. to make right; to amend Forms: corrected; corrected; correcting correlation n. mutual connection (between two or more things); similarity; parallel Forms: plural: correlations corrupt v. to cause to be dishonest; to pervert; to spoil corruption n. dishonesty; immorality; irregularity; unlawfulness; illegality Forms: corrupted; corrupted; corruption Forms: no plural corrupt adj. spoiled; immoral; dishonest; perverted corporate adj. common; shared; collective corruption corrupt356. 355. corrupt correlation354. 353. correct correct352. 351. corporate corp.350. 349. cost cost358. 357. 49 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words cost v. to have a price; to require payment; to set a price Forms: cost; cost; costing counsel council360. 359. cost n. price; expense Forms: plural: costs council n. assembly; board; group of people (gathered to advise, plan, etc.) Forms: plural: councils Forms: counseled; counseled; counseling counsel v. to advise; to instruct; to coach; to advocate counsel n. advice; person who gives advice; attorney; lawyer Forms: plural: counsels counter n. bar; counting device Forms: plural: counters counter v. to oppose; to retaliate; to react; to strike back Forms: countered; countered; countering counter pref. against; opposed counter counter364. 363. counter counsel362. 361. counter adv. against; in contrast to counterbalance v. to act against; to oppose (with an equal weight, force etc.) Forms: counterbalanced; counterbalanced; counterbalancing counterbalance n. equal weight or power acting in opposition Forms: plural: counterbalances couple v. to connect; to join; to link Forms: coupled; coupled; coupling couple counterbalance368. 367. counterbalance counter366. 365. couple n. pair; group of two coupon n. printed form that entitles the holder to certain rights such as in a discount Forms: plural: couples Forms: plural: coupons coupon couple370. 369. courier n. messenger; company that delivers messages, documents, parcels, etc. Forms: plural: couriers Forms: coursed; coursed; coursing course v. to hunt; to pursue; to run over; to race course courier372. 371. court course374. 373. 50 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words course n. direction; series of lessons or training units; layer; part of a meal Forms: plural: courses courteously court376. 375. court v. to seek to please; to flatter; to seek to gain the affections of someone Forms: courted; courted; courting court n. yard; formal reception; place where legal trials take place Forms: plural: courts courtesy n. politeness; good manners; cordiality; civility Forms: plural: courtesies cover v. to encase; to review; to protect; to include; to insure Forms: covered; covered; covering courteously adv. politely; respectfully; graciously cover courtesy378. 377. cover n. insurance; shelter; casing; front; lid Forms: plural: covers coverage n. survey; review; news reporting; insurance Forms: no plural coverage cover380. 379. craft v. to shape with skill Forms: crafted; crafted; crafting craft n. trade; skill; occupation; boat; plane Forms: plural: crafts craft craft382. 381. crafted adj. produced; made; manufactured crate v. to pack in a box Forms: crated; crated; crating crate n. wooden box; old car; old plane Forms: plural: crates create v. to produce; to design; to make; to manufacture Forms: created; created; creating create crate386. 385. crate crafted384. 383. creative adj. inventive; innovative; artistic creativity n. innovativeness; inventiveness Forms: no plural credit credible390. 389. creativity creative388. 387. 51 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words credible adj. reliable; trustworthy; dependable credit v. to believe; to have faith in; to supply goods by deferred payment Forms: credited; credited; credited credit n. money (in a bank account); trust; confidence; respect credit risk n. the prospect that a bond issuer will fail to make required debt payments Forms: plural: credits Forms: plural: credit risks risk credit credit392. 391. creditor n. person or organization that lends something; lender; loaner; moneylender Forms: plural: creditors Forms: plural: crews crew n. group of people working together; team crew creditor394. 393. criterion discipline Forms: plural: criteria criticize v. to disapprove; to censure; to find fault crop n. harvest; produce (Agriculture); group; whip; short haircut Forms: criticized; criticizing Forms: plural: crops critical critical criterion396. 395. n. standard against which something is measured; factor; adj. judgmental; important; crucial; vital crop criticize398. 397. crop v. to harvest; to cut short; to clip Forms: cropped; cropped; cropping crowd n. public; large group of people; gathering Forms: plural: crowds crowd crop400. 399. crowd v. to gather together; to group together; to press in Forms: crowded; crowded; crowding crucial adj. very important; critical; decisive; vital cruise n. traveling on a ship; sea voyage; sailing Forms: plural: cruises crowded adj. full; packed; crammed together crux cruise406. 405. cruise crucial404. 403. crowded crowd402. 401. 52 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words cruise v. to sail; to move at a moderate speed; to travel; to coast; to drive along slowly Forms: cruised; cruised; cruising cure cuisine408. 407. crux n. heart of the matter; main point Forms: plural: cruces or cruxes cuisine n. style of cooking; national food cure n. method or course that restores health; prescribed treatment for an illness Forms: plural: cuisines Forms: plural: cures cure v. to restore to health; to make well; to correct a bad habit; to preserve food Forms: cured; cured; curing currency n. national money of a country; circulation; custom; prevalence Forms: plural: currencies current n. flow (of water, electricity, etc.); process; tendency; direction Forms: plural: currents curious adj. inquisitive; desiring to know and understand; odd; strange; rare current currency412. 411. curious cure410. 409. current adj. recent; common; prevalent; present; popular curt adj. brief; blunt; rude Forms: curter; curtest curtly adv. briefly; bluntly; rudely cushion n. pillow; soft padded object Forms: plural: cushions cushion v. to reduce; to protect; to soften; to upholster Forms: cushioned; cushioned; cushioning custom n. habit; tradition; convention Forms: plural: customs custom cushion418. 417. cushion curtly416. 415. curt current414. 413. customer n. client; buyer; person who buys a product or service customize v. to make or to fit according to individual needs or desires; to personalize; to individualize Forms: plural: customers Forms: customized; customized; customizing customize customer420. 419. cutback customs422. 421. 53 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net C 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words customs n. government department responsible for collecting taxes on imports Forms: only plural cycle cycle424. 423. cutback n. reduction; curtailing; decrease Forms: plural: cutbacks cycle v. to ride a bike cycle n. series (of stories, articles, reports etc.); recurring period of time Forms: cycled; cycled; cycling Forms: plural: cycles 54 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D daily daily2. D1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words daily n. newspaper that is published 5 to 7 times a week Forms: plural: dailies daily adj. occurring on a regular basis damage n. injury; harm Forms: plural: damages damage v. to cause harm; to cause injury; to destroy partly Forms: damaged; damaged; damaging damage damage4. 3. danger n. risk; peril; hazard Forms: plural: dangers dash n. hyphen; drop; pinch; rush; sprint Forms: plural: dashes dash danger6. 5. dash v. to move with sudden speed; to bolt; to shatter; to hurl; to cast Forms: dashed; dashed; dashing date n. day, month and year according to the calendar; interview; meeting Forms: plural: dates date dash8. 7. deadline n. time when a project; assignment; task or job must be completed or turned in Forms: plural: deadlines Forms: plural: deals deal n. agreement; business transaction; exchange; amount deal deadline10. 9. deal v. to provide; to offer; to distribute; to supply; to sell; to trade Forms: dealt; dealt; dealing Forms: plural: dealers dealer n. supplier; seller; merchant; agent; sales representative dealer deal12. 11. dealing out Forms: plural: dealings Forms: plural: debates debate debate dealing14. 13. n. manner of doing business; behavior; distribution; giving n. argument; dispute; discussion; conversation debate v. to argue; to discuss; to consider; to ponder Forms: debated; debated; debating debris n. rubble; ruins; wreckage; fragments Forms: no plural debris debate16. 15. debut debt18. 17. 55 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words debt n. obligation; something owed (i.e. money) Forms: plural: debts decade debut20. 19. debut n. opening of a show; first public appearance Forms: plural: debuts debut v. to perform for the first time; to make one's premiere performance Forms: debuted; debuted; debuting Forms: plural: decades decade n. ten years; group of tens decide v. to choose; to select from several options; to conclude; to resolve Forms: decided; decided; deciding Forms: plural: decisions decision n. determination; resolution; ruling (especially in court) decision decide22. 21. declaration n. statement; proclamation; announcement declare v. to proclaim; to make a statement; to make a full statement of (one's taxable or dutiable property) Forms: plural: declarations Forms: declared; declared; declaring declare declaration24. 23. decline n. downward; descent; slope; ebb Forms: plural: declines decline v. to refuse; to go down; to decrease; to fall Forms: declined; declined; declining decline decline26. 25. decrease n. decline; reduction; lessening Forms: plural: decreases decrease v. to reduce; to lessen; to decline Forms: decreased; decreased; decreasing decrease decrease28. 27. dedicate song, story, etc.) to someone Forms: dedicated; dedicated; dedicating dedication etc.) Forms: plural: dedications dedication dedicate30. 29. v. to devote to; to set apart for; to inscribe (a book, poem, n. setting apart; devotion; inscription (in a book, poem, deed of surrender n. a legal document that temporarily transfers a property from one individual to another Forms: plural: deeds of surrender default v. to fail to perform a duty; to fail to pay on time; to fail to appear in court Forms: defaulted; defaulted; defaulting default surrender32. of deed 31. defect default34. 33. 56 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words default automatically selected Forms: plural: defaults defend defect36. 35. defect n. failure to perform a duty; option on a computer which is v. to desert; to abandon; to change sides Forms: defected; defected; defecting defect n. deficiency; flaw Forms: plural: defects defend v. to protect; to secure; to vindicate Forms: defended; defended; defending defense n. protection; security; rampart; shield Forms: plural: defenses define v. to explain; to clarify; to limit; to set boundaries Forms: defined; defined; defining define defense38. 37. definition n. explanation; meaning; interpretation (as of a word or term) Forms: plural: definitions Forms: plural: degrees degree n. rank; extent; university certificate degree definition40. 39. delay v. to postpone; to hinder; to linger; to move slowly; to loiter Forms: delayed; delayed; delaying Forms: plural: delays delay n. postponement; hindrance; hold-up; stopping; lingering delay delay42. 41. delegate v. to authorize; to appoint as representative; to pass a duty or responsibility on to someone else Forms: delegated; delegated; delegating delegate n. representative; deputy; agent; participant of a conference, convention, seminar etc. Forms: plural: delegates delegate delegate44. 43. delete v. to remove totally; to erase; to eliminate Forms: deleted; deleted; deleting delicious adj. tasty; having a pleasant taste or smell deliver v. to convey; to give; to bring; to distribute; to express Forms: delivered; delivered; delivering deliberately adv. intentionally; purposefully; methodically demand delivery50. 49. deliver delicious48. 47. deliberately delete46. 45. 57 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words delivery n. distribution; liberation; transference Forms: plural: deliveries demeanor demand52. 51. demand v. to claim; to require; to request strongly Forms: demanded; demanded; demanding demand n. claim; requirement; strong request Forms: plural: demands demeanor n. behavior; conduct; bearing; appearance Forms: plural: demeanors demographics n. study of the statistical characteristics of a population Forms: only plural demolish v. to destroy; to ruin; to tear down; to remove Forms: demolished; demolished, demolishing demolish demographics54. 53. demonstrate v. to present; to show or illustrate something through example, or physical demonstrations Forms: demonstrated; demonstrated; demonstrating Forms: plural: demonstrations demonstration n. exhibition; explanation; showing demonstration demonstrate56. 55. denial n. refusal to accept; refusal to believe; refusal to recognize Forms: plural: denials Forms: plural: denominators denominator n. shared characteristic; common feature denominator denial58. 57. dense adj. compact; having a high mass per unit volume; close density n. compactness; closeness Forms: plural: densities deny depart die Forms: denied; denied; denying Forms: departed; departed; departing depart deny62. 61. density dense60. 59. v. to say that something is not true; to refuse; to renounce v. to leave; to go away; to go in a different direction; to department n. division of a company; section; area Forms: plural: departments departmental adj. arranged in divisions; divisional; concerning an office depend departure66. 65. departmental department64. 63. 58 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words departure n. leaving; going away; opposite of arrival Forms: plural: departures dependent dependent68. 67. depend v. to rely on; to trust; to be supported by Forms: depended; depended; depending dependent adj. relying on; needing (the help or support of another person); conditional; contingent dependent n. one who relies on another especially for financial support Forms: plural: dependents depict v. to describe; to illustrate; to characterize; to portray; to elucidate Forms: depicted; depicted; depicting deploy v. to speak out; to move into a position of readiness and availability Forms: deployed; deployed; deploying deploy depict70. 69. deposit v. to put a sum of money in a bank for safekeeping; to pay in part; to set down Forms: deposited; deposited; depositing deposit n. sum of money that has been put in a bank for safekeeping; partial payment; pledge Forms: plural: deposits deposit deposit72. 71. deregulation n. transferal of ownership from government to private hands; privatization Forms: plural: deregulations Forms: described; described; describing describe v. to illustrate; to explain; to characterize; to elucidate describe deregulation74. 73. description n. explanation; illustration; instruction Forms: plural: descriptions deserve v. to be worthy of; to have a right to Forms: deserved; deserved; deserving deserve description76. 75. design v. to create; to conceive; to produce; to conceptualize Forms: designed; designed; designing design n. plan; sketch; model; layout; structure Forms: plural: designs design design78. 77. desk n. office table Forms: plural: desks despite prep. notwithstanding destroy destination82. 81. despite desk80. 79. 59 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words destination n. place where one is going; the purpose for which something is destined Forms: plural: destinations detail destruction84. 83. destroy v. to demolish; to ruin; to destruct; to erase Forms: destroyed; destroyed; destroying destruction n. ruin; desolation; annihilation Forms: plural: destructions detail v. to list; to describe; to specify; to assign Forms: detailed; detailed; detailing detail n. item; piece of information; part of a whole detailed adj. itemized; marked by thoroughness in treating small items or parts Forms: plural: details detect v. to discover; to discern; to find out Forms: detected; detected; detecting determine v. to decide; to define; to conclude; to cause; to affect Forms: determined; determined; determining determine detect88. 87. detailed detail86. 85. develop v. to build; to create; to design; to grow developer n. person who creates something; chemical substance used in photography Forms: developed; developed; developing Forms: plural: developers developer develop90. 89. development n. evolvement; gradual growth; evolution; maturation; progression Forms: plural: developments Forms: plural: devices device n. apparatus; appliance; gadget; trick; scheme device development92. 91. devise v. to plan; to invent; to design dial v. to press buttons; to place a phone call by pressing buttons Forms: devised; devised; devising Forms: dialed; dialed; dialing; dialed; dialed; dialing dial devise94. 93. dial n. rotatable disk on a telephone diary n. written account of daily events and occurrences; journal; daily calendar; log book; blog Forms: plural: dials Forms: plural: diaries diary dial96. 95. dictate dictate98. 97. 60 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words dictate v. to say something aloud for someone to write down; to command; to order; to impose Forms: dictated; dictated; dictating diet diet100. 99. dictate n. ruling principle; command; decree Forms: plural: dictates diet v. to limit the amount of food eaten; to eat only certain kinds of food Forms: dieted; dieted; dieting diet n. nourishment; nutrition; food and drink; regimen; weight loss plan Forms: plural: diets dietician n. nutritionist; expert on nutrition Forms: plural: dieticians difference n. distinction; unusual quality; disagreement; remainder Forms: plural: differences difference dietician102. 101. different adj. not the same; unusual; distinctive difficult adj. hard; troublesome; complicated; complex difficult different104. 103. difficulty n. problem; challenge; hardship; trouble Forms: plural: difficulties dignity n. respected position; honor; nobility Forms: no plural direct adj. straight; forthright; clear direct adv. clearly; in a straightforward manner diligent adj. ambitious; industrious; hard-working digital adj. using numbers; with numbers direct direct110. 109. diligent dignity108. 107. digital difficulty106. 105. direct v. to guide; to lead; to instruct; to manage; to supervise Forms: directed; directed; directing direction n. guidance; supervision; conducting; management Forms: plural: directions direction direct112. 111. directly conj. immediately following; the moment that; as soon as directly adv. clearly; straight; frankly; immediately; soon directly directly114. 113. directory director116. 115. 61 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words director n. boss; supervisor; manager; head Forms: plural: directors disappear disagree118. 117. directory n. guidebook; library; catalog Forms: plural: directories disagree v. to have different opinions; to differ disappear v. to go out of sight; to become extinct; to cease to exist; to vanish Forms: disagreed; disagreed; disagreeing Forms: disappeared; disappeared; disappearing discard v. to throw away; to get rid of Forms: discarded; discarded; discarding discard n. garbage; refuse; scrap Forms: plural: discards discard discard120. 119. discern discipline discipline discern122. 121. v. to distinguish; to perceive; to recognize; to discriminate n. training Forms: discerned; discerned; discerning disclaimer disclaim124. 123. Forms: plural: disciplines disclaim v. to deny connection with; to renounce; to repudiate; to disavow Forms: disclaimed; disclaimed; disclaiming disclaimer n. statement which denies responsibility or affiliation; repudiation; denial Forms: plural: disclaimers discount v. to reduce the price of; to mark down; to ignore Forms: discounted; discounted; discounting discount n. price reduction; rebate Forms: plural: discounts discount discount126. 125. discourage v. to cause to lose heart; to deter; to dissuade; to show disapproval of; to derail Forms: discouraged; discouraged; discouraging discouragement n. derailment; feeling of despair in the face of obstacles discover v. to find out; to come across; to get information about something Forms: plural: discouragements Forms: discovered; discovered; discovering discouraged adj. deprived of hope or confidence; dissuaded from discover discouragement130. 129. discouraged discourage128. 127. discretion discrete132. 131. 62 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words discrete adj. separate; individual; discontinuous discretion n. caution; wisdom; careful judgment Forms: no plural discuss v. to talk about; to debate; to converse Forms: discussed; discussed; discussing discussion n. debate; conversation; talk; dispute; argument Forms: plural: discussions discussion discuss134. 133. disease n. sickness; illness disembark v. to go ashore from a boat; to leave a plane or vehicle; to land Forms: plural: diseases Forms: disembarked; disembarked; disembarking disembark disease136. 135. disk n. flat circular object Forms: plural: disks dislodge v. to extricate; to remove; to evict; to oust; to expel Forms: dislodged; dislodged; dislodging dislodge disk138. 137. dismal adj. gloomy; cheerless; bad; depressing; sad dismiss v. to send away; to fire; to release; to free Forms: dismissed; dismissed; dismissing disparate adj. markedly different; contrasting dispatch n. sending off; shipment; message; communication; promptness Forms: plural: dispatches dispatch v. to send off quickly; to dismiss; to conclude with speed and efficiency; to eliminate Forms: dispatched; dispatched; dispatching Forms: plural: dispenses dispense n. expenditure; pardon dispense dispatch144. 143. dispatch disparate142. 141. dismiss dismal140. 139. dispense v. to do without; to give up; to distribute; to give out; to hand out Forms: dispensed; dispensed; dispensing display n. presentation; show; screen; monitor; exposure; exhibition Forms: plural: displays display dispense146. 145. disposal display148. 147. 63 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words display v. to put out for others to see; to show; to exhibit; to reveal Forms: displayed; displayed; displaying disposition dispose150. 149. disposal n. getting rid of; arranging Forms: plural: disposals dispose v. to control; to arrange; to put in order Forms: disposed; disposed; disposing disposition n. character; nature; trait; arrangement; placement Forms: plural: dispositions dispute n. quarrel; disagreement; argument dispute v. to argue; to debate; to contest; to oppose; to fight against Forms: plural: disputes Forms: disputed; disputed; disputing dispute dispute152. 151. disrupt v. to upset; to disturb; to divide Forms: disrupted; disrupted; disrupting dissipate v. to scatter; to spread out; to be scattered Forms: dissipated; dissipated; dissipating dissipate disrupt154. 153. distinctive adj. special; unique; different distinguish v. to mark as different; to see as different; to discern; to recognize Forms: distinguished; distinguished; distinguishing distract v. to disturb; to confuse; to worry; to divert; to amuse distributor n. person, company or organization that markets a commodity, product or service; wholesaler; dealer Forms: distracted; distracted; distracting Forms: plural: distributors distributor distract158. 157. distinguish distinctive156. 155. disturb v. to bother; to interrupt; to confuse; to worry Forms: disturbed; disturbed; disturbing diversification n. process of becoming varied; sale of a variety of products and services Forms: plural: diversifications diversify v. to make different; to invest one's assets in various securities Forms: diversified; diversified; diversifying diverse adj. different; varied diversify diversification162. 161. diverse disturb160. 159. divert diversity164. 163. 64 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words diversity n. variety; difference; unlikeness divert v. to distract; to entertain; to turn in a different direction; to deflect Forms: plural: diversities divide divide166. 165. Forms: diverted; diverted; diverting divide n. separation; ridge between drainage areas; watershed Forms: plural: divides divide v. to separate into parts; to part; to share; to apportion Forms: divided; divided; dividing division n. partitioning; department; faculty; ranking; level according to difficulty Forms: plural: divisions doctor n. person who is licensed to practice medicine (i.e. physician, surgeon etc.) Forms: plural: doctors doctor division168. 167. doctor v. to provide medical treatment; to fix; to repair; to mend Forms: doctored; doctored; doctoring document n. certificate; written file Forms: plural: documents document doctor170. 169. document v. to record for evidence; to write down; to substantiate documentation n. collection of written records; use of written records as evidence Forms: documented; documented; documenting Forms: plural: documentations documentation document172. 171. dollar drain n. a situation in which the imports of a country from the USA are larger than their exports to the USA Forms: no plural domestic n. housemaid; servant; housekeeper Forms: plural: domestics dominate v. to control; to rule; to command Forms: dominated; dominated; dominating domestic adj. pertaining to home; pertaining to family; tame (about an animal) dominate domestic176. 175. domestic drain174. dollar 173. donate v. to give; to contribute; to grant; to bestow Forms: donated; donated; donating donation n. gift; contribution Forms: plural: donations donation donate178. 177. dot dot180. 179. 65 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words dot v. to stud; to constellate Forms: dotted; dotted; dotting doubt dotted182. 181. dot n. spot; speck; part (the point) in an Internet web address Forms: plural: dots dotted adj. spotted; speckled; composed of a series of small dashes (about a line) Forms: doubted; doubted; doubting doubt n. misgiving; lack of certainty download v. to copy files from a distant computer onto another computer through an Internet connection Forms: plural: doubts Forms: downloaded; downloaded; downloading doubt v. to be uncertain; to have misgivings download doubt184. 183. downsize adj. of a smaller version or dimension downsize v. to reduce the size of; to make smaller; to cut the number of employees Forms: downsized; downsized; downsized downsizing n. bringing something down to a smaller scale; lowering expenses Forms: plural: no plural Forms: plural: downtowns downtown n. commercial center of a city; business distract downtown downsizing188. 187. downsize downsize186. 185. downtown adj. pertaining to the commercial center of a city downtown adv. into the city center; into the the town downtown downtown190. 189. downturn downward downward downturn192. 191. n. negative tendency (especially in economy or business) adv. towards a lower place, position or section Forms: plural: downturns downward adj. descending draft v. to make an outline; to draw up in written form; to conscript; to draw out and separate Forms: drafted; drafted; drafting drastic draft196. 195. draft downward194. 193. 66 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words draft n. rough outline; sketch; written order for payment; conscription Forms: plural: drafts drastic adj. extreme; intense; severe drastically adv. intensely; in an extreme manner; severely draw v. to attract; to pull; to sketch; to depict with lines; to conclude Forms: drew; drawn; drawing draw n. attraction; lottery; contest which ends in a tie; natural channel; gully Forms: plural: draws Forms: plural: dress codes dress code n. formally or socially imposed standards of attire code dress draw200. 199. draw drastically198. 197. drill v. to bore a hole; to practice; to train; to sow seeds in rows Forms: drilled; drilled; drilling drill n. practice; training; furrow; seeding machine; row of seeds in a furrow Forms: plural: drills drill drill202. 201. drive v. to travel in a car; to transport in a vehicle; to compel drive n. trip in a vehicle; type of computer hardware; combined effort to accomplish a goal (i.e. fund raiser) Forms: drove; driven; driving Forms: plural: drives drive drive204. 203. driver to communicate with a particular device Forms: plural: drivers drop to abandon Forms: dropped; dropped; dropping drop driver206. 205. n. chauffeur; program which enables an operating system v. to fall; to make fall; to bring down; to go down; to omit; drop n. small globule of liquid; drip; very small amount; pendant Forms: plural: drops due adj. owed; payable; right; fitting; suitable; adequate duplicate due210. 209. due drop208. 207. 67 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net D 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words due n. something which legally or rightfully belongs to an individual; payment; fee Forms: plural: dues duplicate duplicate212. 211. duplicate n. copy; photocopy; exact replica; reproduction Forms: plural: duplicates duplicate v. to copy; to replicate; to photocopy Forms: duplicated; duplicated; duplicating durable adj. sturdy; long lasting duration n. period of time that something continues Forms: plural: durations duress n. intimidation; constraint; pressure; coercion Forms: no plural duty n. obligation; responsibility; assignment; customs tax Forms: plural: duties dynamic adj. forceful; energetic; vigorous; spirited; alive during prep. while; throughout duplicate adj. double; identical; matching dynamic duty218. 217. during duress216. 215. duration durable214. 213. 68 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E earn eager2. E1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words eager adj. strongly desiring; keen; fervently interested earn v. to receive as a result of work or other service performed; to profit; to be eligible; to be worthy Forms: earned; earned; earning earnest n. seriousness; industriousness Forms: no plural earnings n. money gained; salary; revenue; profit; income Forms: only plural easy adv. comfortably; without great difficulty or effort economize v. to save; to cut back; to be thrifty; to be frugal Forms: economized; economized; economizing economy n. management of resources (i.e. money, goods, etc.); thrift; careful spending Forms: plural: economies edge n. line at which a surface ends; thin sharp side of a blade; excitement Forms: plural: edges easy adj. mild; slight; comfortable; simple earnest adj. serious; sober; sincere; fervent; eager edge economy10. 9. economize easy8. 7. easy earnings6. 5. earnest earnest4. 3. edge v. to sharpen; to provide with a border; to advance gradually or furtively Forms: edged; edged; edging edit v. to revise; to alter; to make changes and corrections prior to printing Forms: edited; edited; editing editor n. person or organization that prepares printed matter for publication Forms: plural: editors edge adj. at or constituting a place where two surfaces meet editor edit14. 13. edge edge12. 11. education n. learning; instruction; imparting of knowledge; upbringing Forms: no plural Forms: plural: effects effect n. result; outcome; impact; trick; natural phenomenon effect education16. 15. effective effect18. 17. 69 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words effect v. to accomplish; to put into action; to execute; to do Forms: effected; effected; effecting effective adj. productive; in operation; impressive; striking efficient adj. done without waste (of time, resources, etc.) effort n. physical or mental exertion; labor; attempt; organized operation Forms: plural: efforts effusive adj. overflowing; unreserved; unrestrained; exuberant either adj. one of two either effusive22. 21. effort efficient20. 19. either adv. also; too; as well either conj. precedes two or more coordinate words or phrases either either24. 23. elaborate v. to provide additional details; to plan carefully and with great detail; to produce; to develop Forms: elaborated; elaborated; elaborating elaboration n. painstaking labor; careful planning; adding of extra details; act of improving; production Forms: plural: elaborations Forms: elected; elected; electing elect v. to choose; to vote for; to prefer; to decide elaborate adj. detailed; complicated; carefully planned; worked out in great detail elect elaboration28. 27. elaborate elaborate26. 25. elect adj. chosen for office but net yet formally installed election n. choosing; time when people vote for a political candidate Forms: plural: elections electrician n. person who installs or maintains wiring systems element n. main component; something which is a part of a complex whole Forms: plural: electricians Forms: plural: elements element electrician32. 31. election elect30. 29. elemental adj. simple; basic elementary adj. basic; fundamental elementary elemental34. 33. elevator elevation36. 35. 70 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words elevation n. height of something; altitude above sea or ground level; raising; lifting up; grandeur Forms: plural: elevations eligible elicit38. 37. elevator n. lift; mechanical apparatus for moving people or items from floor to floor within a building Forms: plural: elevators elicit v. to extract from; to bring out; to draw out Forms: elicited; elicited; eliciting eliminate v. to remove; to get rid of Forms: eliminated; eliminated; eliminating elucidate v. to explain; to clarify; to describe; to depict Forms: elucidated; elucidated; elucidating eligible adj. suitable; worthy of; qualified; entitled to; allowed elucidate eliminate40. 39. elude v. to avoid; to escape; to shrink embark v. to go on board a ship; to put on board a ship; to begin; to become involved in an enterprise Forms: elude d; eluded; eluding Forms: embarked; embarked; embarking embark elude42. 41. embrace n. hug; act of wrapping one's arms around another person or thing Forms: plural: embraces Forms: embraced; embraced; embracing embrace v. to accept; to belief; to hug; to hold tight embrace embrace44. 43. emerge v. to appear; to come out; to be revealed Forms: emerged; emerged; emerging emergency n. sudden need demanding immediate action Forms: plural: emergencies emergency emerge46. 45. emergency adj. in the event of sudden need empathy n. entering into the feelings of another; sympathy; vicarious emotion; understanding Forms: plural: empathies emphasis n. importance that is attached to something; accent or stress that is placed on a word or words Forms: no plural Forms: emphasized; emphasized; emphasizing emphasize v. to stress; to show the importance of emphasize emphasis50. 49. empathy emergency48. 47. employee employ52. 51. 71 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words employ v. to hire as a worker; to activate; to operate; to use employee n. worker; person who works for a company or an individual Forms: employed; employed; employing employment employer54. 53. Forms: plural: employees employer n. boss; person or company that hires people to do work Forms: plural: employers employment n. work; occupation; keeping busy Forms: no plural empty n. container devoid of contents Forms: plural: empties empty v. to remove the contents of Forms: emptied; emptied, emptying empty empty56. 55. empty adj. containing nothing; without people; without contents; hollow; meaningless Forms: emulated; emulated; emulating enclose v. to surround; to confine; to close in; to place an additional document or letter within another Forms: enclosed; enclosed; enclosing enclosure n. confinement; additional document or letter placed within another Forms: plural: enclosures emulate v. to imitate; to try to equal or excel; to take after; to copy enclosure enclose60. 59. emulate empty58. 57. encounter n. chance meeting encounter v. to meet by chance; to face; to meet with (difficulties, hardships, etc.) Forms: plural: encounters Forms: encountered; encountered; encountering encounter encounter62. 61. encourage v. to support; to inspire; to give hope Forms: encouraged; encouraged; encouraging encroach v. to advance beyond proper limits; to infringe Forms: encroached; encroached; encroaching encroach encourage64. 63. endorsement n. signature on a money order such as a check Forms: plural: endorsements endure v. to put up with something or somebody unpleasant Forms: endured; endured; enduring endure endorsement66. 65. engagement engage68. 67. 72 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words engage v. to keep busy; to occupy; to employ; to commit Forms: engaged; engaged; engaging engineer engine70. 69. engagement n. commitment; obligation; period of employment Forms: plural: engagements engine part of a program which handles certain types of date Forms: plural: engines Forms: engineered; engineered; engineering engineer n. machine which supplies force and motion; motor; truck; v. to design; to plan (i.e. machinery, roads, etc.) engineer enhance of Forms: plural: engineers Forms: enhanced; enhanced; enhancing enhance engineer72. 71. n. person who designs and plans (machinery, roads, etc.) v. to increase; to intensify; to improve; to raise the value enlarge v. to become bigger; to expand Forms: enlarged; enlarged; enlarging enlargement n. expansion; increase in size; magnification Forms: plural: enlargements enlargement enlarge74. 73. enlighten v. to instruct; to provide with intellectual or spiritual understanding Forms: enlightened; enlightened; enlightening Forms: no plural enlightenment n. state of intellectual or spiritual awareness enlightenment enlighten76. 75. enlist v. to draft into military service; to voluntarily join a cause Forms: enlisted; enlisted; enlisting enough n. adequate amount; sufficient degree Forms: plural: enoughs enough enlist78. 77. enough adj. sufficient; adequate enough adv. quite; sufficiently; fairly enough enough80. 79. enrich v. to improve; to make better Forms: enriched; enriched; enriching enrichment n. enhancement; refinement; improvement Forms: plural: enrichments enrichment enrich82. 81. ensure enroll84. 83. 73 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words enroll v. to register; to sign up; to join up; to enter one's name on a list Forms: enrolled; enrolled; enrolling enterprise enter86. 85. ensure v. to make certain; to guarantee; to make secure Forms: ensured; ensured; ensuring enter v. to go into; to join; to record; to inscribe Forms: entered; entered; entering enterprise n. company; firm; undertaking; business; endeavor Forms: plural: enterprises entertain v. to interest; to amuse; to host Forms: entertained; entertained; entertaining entertainer n. host; performer; comedian Forms: plural: entertainers entertainer entertain88. 87. entertainment n. something interesting or amusing; fun; hospitality Forms: plural: entertainments enthuse v. to express excitement; to motivate Forms: enthused; enthused; enthusing enthuse entertainment90. 89. enthusiasm n. excitement; great interest Forms: no plural entire adj. whole; including every part; complete; full entirely adv. totally; completely; absolutely enthusiastic adj. excited; passionate; ardent; fervent entirely entire94. 93. enthusiastic enthusiasm92. 91. entitle v. to give a heading or name to (i.e. a book, painting, etc.); to grant a right; to claim something Forms: entitled; entitled; entitling entrance v. to hypnotize; to enthrall Forms: entranced; entranced; entrancing entrance n. way into a building or other structure; gate; doorway Forms: plural: entrances entitled adj. allowed; eligible; having the right to something entrance entrance98. 97. entitled entitle96. 95. entrust responsibility or duty Forms: entrusted; entrusted; entrusting entry dictionary, catalog, list, directory, etc. Forms: plural: entries entry entrust100. 99. v. to give to for safekeeping; to empower someone with a n. opening; record; information or item in a book, environmental environment102. 101. 74 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words environment n. surroundings; conditions in which someone or something lives Forms: plural: environments environmental adj. pertaining to the world and nature around us envision v. to imagine to oneself; to picture; to visualize episode n. event; occurrence; one of a group of loosely connected stories Forms: envisioned; envisioned; envisioning Forms: plural: episodes episode envision104. 103. equal n. person or thing that is the same Forms: plural: equals equal v. to match; to correspond; to resemble; to be similar to Forms: equaled; equaled; equaling equal equal106. 105. equal adj. same; identical; able; capable equality n. sameness; uniformity Forms: no plural equip v. to provide with the required supplies, tools and items equipment n. supplies; necessary items; tools, instruments or other objects for completing a task Forms: equipped; equipped; equipping Forms: plural: equipments equipment equip110. 109. equality equal108. 107. equity n. honesty; fairness; justice equivalent adj. same in worth or value; same in importance; corresponding Forms: no plural equivalent n. something that is the same of the same level Forms: plural: equivalents erase v. to rub off; to remove totally; to delete Forms: erased; erased; erasing erase equivalent114. 113. equivalent equity112. 111. erasure n. rubbing out; deletion; eradication Forms: plural: erasures error n. mistake; something that is incorrect Forms: plural: errors error erasure116. 115. essence especially118. 117. 75 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words especially adv. particularly essence n. inherent nature of something; central or outstanding characteristic Forms: plural: essences essential adj. necessary; needed; fundamental; crucial; very important Forms: established; established; establishing establishment n. anything that is set up; institution (i.e. business, church, authority, government, etc.) Forms: plural: establishments estate n. extensive piece of land usually with a large house on it; person's property; wealth; possessions Forms: plural: estates establish v. to set up; to found; to base; to build estate establishment122. 121. establish essential120. 119. esteem v. to respect; to honor; to admire; to value Forms: esteemed; esteemed; esteeming esteem n. admiration; respect Forms: no plural esteem esteem124. 123. estimate v. to judge an object's value; to appraise; to assess; to guess Forms: estimated; estimated; estimating estimate n. judgment of an object's worth; appraisal; opinion; judgment Forms: plural: estimates estimate estimate126. 125. etc. adv. and so on; and so forth etc. abbr. Latin for and so on; and so forth Forms: etcetera evade v. to avoid; to run away; to shrink evaluate v. to appraise; to judge the worth or quality; to assess; to gauge Forms: evaded; evaded; evading Forms: evaluated; evaluated; evaluating evaluate evade130. 129. etc. etc.128. 127. evaluation n. appraisal; estimation; assessment Forms: plural: evaluations evasive adj. avoiding; tending to shrink; elusive even even134. 133. evasive evaluation132. 131. 76 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words even adj. smooth; straight; level; parallel; equal; consistent even v. to make level; to smooth; to balance Forms: evened; evened; evening event n. occurrence; happening; contest; campaign; promotion Forms: plural: events evict v. to expel a tenant by legal process; to turn out Forms: evicted; evicted; evicting evidence n. proof; something which proves or disproves Forms: plural: evidences eventual adj. final; occurring as a result evidence evict138. 137. eventual event136. 135. evidence v. to offer proof; to prove; to show to be true Forms: evidenced; evidenced; evidencing evoke v. to arouse; to bring out; to summon; to wake Forms: evoked; evoked; evoking exact v. to demand; to require; to insist upon; to force Forms: exacted; exacted; exacting evident adj. clear; obvious; apparent exact evoke142. 141. evident evidence140. 139. exact adj. precise; meticulous; extremely accurate exaggerate v. to overstate; to make something seem greater or more important than it really is Forms: exaggerated; exaggerated; exaggerating examination n. test; quiz; investigation; inquiry Forms: plural: examinations examinee n. person who is tested; candidate Forms: plural: examinees examinee examination146. 145. exaggerate exact144. 143. examiner n. person who gives a test example n. model; pattern; something which serves as an illustration Forms: plural: examiner Forms: plural: examples example examiner148. 147. excel exceed150. 149. 77 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words exceed v. to surpass; to pass; to go beyond; to outdo excel v. to be talented; to do very well; to surpass; to do better than Forms: exceeded; exceeded; exceeding except excellent152. 151. Forms: excelled; excelled; excelling excellent adj. superior; extraordinary; outstanding except prep. but; besides except conj. but; only except v. to exclude; to leave out; to skip; to protest; to object Forms: excepted; excepted; excepting exception n. something that is out of the ordinary; anomaly; objection; opposition Forms: plural: exceptions Forms: plural: exchanges exchange n. conversion; stock market; trade; barter; conversation exchange exception156. 155. except except154. 153. exchange v. to give one thing in return for another; to replace one thing with another; to trade; to barter Forms: exchanged; exchanged; exchanging Forms: excited; excited; exciting excite v. to stir up; to arouse feelings; to provoke; to stimulate excite exchange158. 157. exclude v. to leave out; to keep out; to prevent from happening or being; to reject Forms: excluded; excluded; excluding exclusion n. prevention; rejection; leaving out; keeping out; shutting out Forms: plural: exclusions exclusion exclude160. 159. exclusive n. news story publicized in only a newspaper or television/radio station Forms: plural: exclusives exclusively adj. in a manner which shuts out all others; solely; in a limited manner Forms: executed; executed; executing execute v. to perform; to carry out; to put into practice exclusive adj. sole; limited to a selected few; incompatible; fashionable; unique executive executive166. 165. execute exclusively164. 163. exclusive exclusive162. 161. 78 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words executive adj. administrative; operational; having the power to execute laws and policy executive n. manager; person or group of persons having administrative authority within an organization Forms: plural: executives exert v. to exercise; to use; to make an effort Forms: exerted; exerted; exerting exertion n. putting to use; putting into action; effort; struggle; strain Forms: plural: exertions exertion exert168. 167. exhibit n. something presented as evidence in a court of law; display; show Forms: plural: exhibits Forms: exhibited; exhibited; exhibiting exhibit v. to show; to display; to demonstrate; to present exhibit exhibit170. 169. exhibition n. display; show; public presentation of work or skills; trade fair Forms: plural: exhibitions Forms: existed; existed; existing exist v. to live; to be exist exhibition172. 171. existence n. living; state of being; life Forms: plural: existences exit n. passage that leads out Forms: plural: exits exit existence174. 173. exit v. to leave; to go out expand v. to grow larger; to broaden; to increase; to enlarge; to add to Forms: exited; exited; exiting Forms: expanded; expanded; expanding expand exit176. 175. expansion n. enlargement; increase; spread; development Forms: plural: expansions expect v. to assume; to anticipate; to hope Forms: expected; expected; expecting expect expansion178. 177. expectancy n. hope; anticipation; assumption Forms: plural: no plural expectation n. anticipation; longing or waiting for; hope Forms: plural: expectations expectation expectancy180. 179. expel expedite182. 181. 79 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words expedite v. to speed up; to accelerate; to facilitate; to dispatch Forms: expedited; expedited; expediting expense expenditure184. 183. expel v. eject; drive out; banish Forms: expelled; expelled; expelling expenditure n. spending; disbursement; outlay (especially financial) Forms: plural: expenditures expense n. cost; price; payment Forms: plural: expenses expensive adj. costly; precious; opposite of cheap experience n. knowledge obtained by doing; something that one has lived through Forms: plural: experiences experience v. to try; to live through; to feel; to endure Forms: experienced; experienced; experiencing experiment n. attempt to discover or test something; trial; research Forms: plural: experiments experiment experience188. 187. experience expensive186. 185. experiment v. to attempt to discover or test something; to try; to venture; to research Forms: experimented; experimented; experimenting Forms: plural: experts expert n. person skilled in a particular area; specialist expert experiment190. 189. expert adj. skilled; knowledgeable; highly sophisticated; very experienced Forms: no plural expiration n. termination; end Forms: plural: expirations expire v. to come to an end; to finish; to terminate Forms: expired; expired; expiring expertise n. proficiency; skill; specialist knowledge and information expire expiration194. 193. expertise expert192. 191. explain v. to illustrate; to elucidate; to interpret; to describe; to define Forms: explained; explained; explaining explanation n. interpretation; something that clarifies; description; definition Forms: plural: explanations explanation explain196. 195. explorer explore198. 197. 80 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words explore v. to travel to unknown regions; to investigate; to examine; to research Forms: explored; explored; exploring export export200. 199. explorer n. researcher; investigator; software program for file management Forms: plural: explorers export n. shipping of goods to other countries export v. to ship; to send abroad; to sell goods and products overseas Forms: plural: exports Forms: exported; exported; exporting expose v. to reveal; to uncover; to disclose; to abandon exposure n. denouncement; revealing; photograph; abandoning; placement Forms: exposed; exposed; exposing Forms: plural: exposures exposure expose202. 201. express v. to declare; to say; to send quickly; to squeeze; to extract Forms: expressed; expressed; expressing express n. system for prompt transportation of people or parcels; dispatch conveyed by special messenger Forms: plural: expresses Forms: plural: expressions expression n. putting into words; phrase; word; manifestation express adj. clear; exact; precise; quick expression express206. 205. express express204. 203. extend v. to stretch; to enlarge; to lengthen; to reach out extension n. expansion; branch of a telephone network; supplement; reprieve Forms: extended; extended; extending Forms: plural: extensions extension extend208. 207. extensive adj. spreading over a large area; comprehensive extent n. scope; range; scale; size; measure; degree Forms: plural: extents extract extract212. 211. extent extensive210. 209. 81 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net E 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words extract n. substance obtained from a plant; essence; text paragraph; passage Forms: plural: extracts extraordinary extradite214. 213. extract v. to remove; to take out; to squeeze; to press; to elicit Forms: extracted; extracted; extracting extradite v. to hand over to another nation or judicial authority Forms: extradited; extradited; extraditing extraordinary adj. unusual 82 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F facilitate fabric2. F1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words fabric n. textile; weave; structure; framework; construction facilitate v. to make easy; to assist; to forward; to promote; to expedite Forms: plural: fabrics facility facilitator4. 3. Forms: facilitated; facilitated; facilitating facilitator n. person or thing which promotes; expeditor Forms: plural: facilitators facility n. device; tool; convenience; talent; ability; building Forms: plural: facilities factor n. cause; agent; broker; financier; money lender factory n. plant; any location which mass-produces one type of product Forms: plural: factors Forms: plural: factories factory factor6. 5. fade v. to wither; to die out; to bleach; to disappear fail v. to be unsuccessful; to not do; to disappoint; to go bankrupt; to be used up Forms: faded; faded; fading Forms: failed; failed; failing fail fade8. 7. failure n. inability to succeed; lack of success; lack; bankruptcy; downfall Forms: plural: failures Forms: plural: fairs fair n. festival; exhibition; show; market; bazaar fair failure10. 9. fair adj. just; reasonable; handsome; light colored; clean; clear faith n. belief in a particular thing or person; religion; trust; confidence; loyalty Forms: plural: faiths fall off v. to separate; to be separated; to decrease; to become smaller Forms: fell off; fallen off; falling off fair adv. justly; equitably; directly; completely; really off fall faith14. 13. fair fair12. 11. false adj. not true; counterfeit; deceitful; wrong; artificial; not faithful falter v. to hesitate; to stumble; to sway; to totter; to be unstable Forms: faltered; faltered; faltering familiar fame18. 17. falter false16. 15. 83 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words fame n. notoriety; renown; good reputation Forms: no plural familiarize familiar20. 19. familiar n. good friend; acquaintance Forms: plural: familiars familiar adj. ordinary; skilled; close; intimate; well-known familiarize v. to cause to be acquainted; to accustom; to make something well known; to publicize Forms: familiarized; familiarized; familiarizing famous adj. well-known; excellent; wonderful fare n. cost for traveling (on a bus, train, etc.) Forms: plural: fares fare v. to travel; to go; to journey; to happen; to eat and drink favorable adj. positive; approving; likable; helpful; encouraging; desirable Forms: fared; fared; faring favorite adj. preferred; beloved; liked fax n. device for electronically transmitting written material; electronically transmitted document Forms: plural: faxes fax v. to transmit document electronically Forms: faxed; faxed; faxing fear n. fright; horror; concern; terror Forms: plural: fears fear fax28. 27. fax favorite26. 25. favorable fare24. 23. fare famous22. 21. fear v. to be frightened; to be concerned; to be afraid of; to have respect for Forms: feared; feared; fearing feasibility n. capability of being carried out; capability of being achieved; likelihood; probability Forms: no plural feasibility fear30. 29. feasible adj. able to be carried out; achievable; possible; likely feature n. characteristic; function; capability (of a product, machine, device, software etc.) Forms: plural: features fee feature34. 33. feature feasible32. 31. 84 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words feature v. to characterize; to depict; to describe; to present; to emphasize Forms: featured; featured; featuring feed fee36. 35. fee n. toll; payment for services rendered; cost of admission; commission; feudal estate Forms: plural: fees fee v. to pay to; to hire; to employ feed n. meal; nourishment; material supplied; act of inserting into a machine (especially of putting paper into a printer) Forms: feed; feed; feeing Forms: plural: feeds feed v. to supply; to support; to send; to move into a machine feedback n. response; critique; information about the results of a certain procedure or performance Forms: fed; fed; feeding Forms: plural: feedbacks feedback feed38. 37. fellow n. friend; member of an academic organization; suitor fellow adj. having membership in; belonging to (a group, academic organization, etc.); of the same type Forms: plural: fellows fence n. railing; hedge; ability to argue; person who sells stolen goods Forms: plural: fences fence v. to protect; to guard; to evade a question; to respond in a vague manner Forms: fenced; fenced; fencing fence fence42. 41. fellow fellow40. 39. ferry n. boat for crossing a body of water; shuttle ferry v. to convey passengers or cargo by boat across a small body of water Forms: plural: ferries Forms: ferried; ferried; ferrying ferry ferry44. 43. fertilize v. to impregnate; to inseminate; to enrich the soil by the addition of organic or chemical substances Forms: fertilized; fertilized; fertilizing fertilizer n. organic or chemical substance added to soil to enrich it (i.e. manure) Forms: plural: fertilizer fertilizer fertilize46. 45. few fetch48. 47. 85 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words fetch v. to go after and bring back; to pick up; to charm Forms: fetched; fetched; fetching field few50. 49. few n. not many; some; several; small number of Forms: plural: no plural few adj. little; not many; some field n. area; domain; range; piece of land; surface Forms: plural: fields field v. to answer adequately or successfully figure n. number; image; character; price; human shape; symbol Forms: fielded; fielded; fielding Forms: plural: figures figure field52. 51. figure v. to calculate; to think; to assume; to portray; to depict; to express verbally Forms: figured; figured; figuring file n. dossier; collection of documents on a subject; tool for smoothing surfaces; line; queue Forms: plural: files file figure54. 53. file v. to arrange papers methodically for preservation and reference; to submit in a formal way Forms: filed; filed; filing Forms: filled out; filled out; filling out fill out v. to insert written information into the gaps on a form out fill file56. 55. final n. end; conclusion; last edition of a newspaper final adj. at the end; last; ultimate; decisive; conclusive; definitive Forms: plural: finals finalize v. to end; to sum up; to complete; to conclude finance n. money management (including investment, banking etc.); science of money management Forms: finalized; finalized; finalizing Forms: plural: finances finance finalize60. 59. final final58. 57. finance v. to raise money for; to provide with funds; to fund; to pay for Forms: financed; financed; financing fine n. monetary penalty; punishment which involves the payment of specified sum of money Forms: plural: fines fine finance62. 61. fine fine64. 63. 86 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words fine to reduce; to clarify Forms: fined; fined; fining fine v. to impose a tax upon; to purify; to make thin or thinner; adj. delicate; thin; flimsy; handsome; top-quality; excellent fine adv. very well; excellent finish n. end; completion; conclusion; polish; something which completes or perfects Forms: plural: finishes finish v. to terminate; to end; to destroy; to defeat; to complete Forms: finished; finished; finishing firm n. company; commercial business; corporation Forms: plural: firms firm finish68. 67. finish fine66. 65. firm v. to solidify; to become solid; to stabilize; to become stable Forms: firmed; firmed; firming firm adv. sturdily; steadily; assertively; in a determined manner fix (i.e. of a ship or individual) Forms: plural: fixes fix prepare Forms: fixed; fixed; fixing fiscal adj. of public funds; of or pertaining to money matters firm adj. strong; solid; stable; fixed; immovable; determined fix fix74. 73. fiscal firm72. 71. firm firm70. 69. n. embarrassing situation; predicament; location; position v. to determine; to stabilize; to arrange; to repair; to fixture n. something which is permanently or securely attached; set date for a sporting event Forms: plural: fixtures fizzle n. failure; fiasco; sputtering which gradually fades into silence Forms: plural: fizzles fizzle fixture76. 75. fizzle v. to fail after starting well; to make a hissing noise which gradually fades into silence Forms: fizzled; fizzled; fizzling flat money n. banknote printed by a government as legal tender which is not redeemable and which lacks economic value Forms: no plural money flat fizzle78. 77. flaw flaw80. 79. 87 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words flaw v. to crack; to become defective; to become cracked Forms: flawed; flawed; flawing flawless flawed82. 81. flaw n. defect; imperfection; crack; strong gust or wind Forms: plural: flaws flawed adj. defective; imperfect; cracked flawless adj. perfect; impeccable fleet v. to move quickly; to pass quickly Forms: fleeted; fleeted; fleeting fleet n. group of ships, cars, trucks or other vehicles flexibility n. elasticity; ability to adapt to new circumstances; pliability Forms: plural: fleets Forms: plural: no plural fleet adj. swift; fast flexibility fleet86. 85. fleet fleet84. 83. flexible adj. elastic; easily bent; adroit; adept; pliable flight n. flying; aviation; trip on an airplane; escape Forms: plural: flights floor v. to knock down; to astound; to shock floor n. flat surface at the bottom of the room on which you walk; story; level of a building Forms: floored; floored; flooring Forms: plural: floors floor floor90. 89. flight flexible88. 87. florist n. owner of a flower shop; person who makes flower arrangements Forms: plural: florists Forms: fluctuated; fluctuated; fluctuating fluctuate v. to vacillate; to waver; to vary; to change fluctuate florist92. 91. fluctuation n. vacillation; instability; wavering; inconstancy; change fluency n. ability to speak and write easily; eloquence; articulateness; gracefulness Forms: plural: fluctuations Forms: no plural fluency fluctuation94. 93. focus fluent96. 95. 88 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words fluent graceful; flowing focus adj. articulate; eloquent; able to read and write with ease; v. to make clear; to concentrate Forms: focussed; focussed; focusing focus n. center; hub; concentration Forms: no plural folder fold100. 99. fold focus98. 97. fold v. to bend; to crease; to wrap; to envelop; to clasp Forms: folded; folded; folding fold n. bend; crease; depression in the ground; hollow between two hills; yard Forms: plural: folds Forms: plural: folders folder n. dossier for storing papers; directory food n. nourishment; substance which provides the body with nutrients; sustenance Forms: plural: foods Forms: forecast; forecast; forecasting forecast v. to predict a future event or condition; to foretell forecast food102. 101. forecast adj. predicted; expected; anticipated forecast n. prediction of a future event or condition (i.e. development of the economy) Forms: plural: forecasts forecaster n. person who foretells future events; weatherman foreign adj. strange; unfamiliar; from or of another place; pertaining to dealings with another country Forms: plural: forecasters foremost adv. first in place or rank; primary; leading; main foresee v. to predict; to prophesy; to foretell Forms: foresaw; foreseen; foreseeing form form to be filled in; fitness; type Forms: formed; formed; forming Forms: plural: forms form form110. 109. foresee foremost108. 107. foreign forecaster106. 105. forecast forecast104. 103. v. to shape; to create; to design; to arrange; to be created n. shape; image; framework; document with blank spaces formal formal112. 111. 89 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words formal adj. ceremonious; conventional; according to custom; stiff; strict; symmetrical formal n. occasion which requires fancy dress (dance, ball, etc.); evening gown Forms: plural: formals format v. to design the appearance of; to arrange; to prepare a diskette or hard disk for use Forms: formatted; formatted; formatting format n. structure; pattern; design; organization; pattern of data organization Forms: plural: formats format format114. 113. formatted adj. arranged in a particular way; prepared for reading and writing Forms: plural: formulas formulate v. to devise; to conceive; to develop; to plan Forms: formulated; formulated; formulating fortune n. luck; wealth; chance; success; riches Forms: plural: fortunes forward v. to send; to convey; to transmit; to promote; to advance Forms: forwarded; forwarded; forwarding fortunate adj. lucky; successful; opportune formula n. set way of saying or doing something; principle; pattern forward fortune120. 119. fortunate formulate118. 117. formula formatted116. 115. forward adj. advanced; ahead; ready; brash; of the future; progressive forward n. player positioned at the front of the offensive line (Sports) Forms: plural: forwards foster v. to encourage; to nurture; to promote; to raise; to care for Forms: fostered; fostered; fostering found adj. discovered foster adj. entrusted to the care forward adv. ahead; to the front foundation found128. 127. found foster126. 125. foster forward124. 123. forward forward122. 121. 90 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words found v. to establish; to create; to build; to set up; to start a company Forms: founded; founded; founding founder founder130. 129. foundation n. base; fundament; substructure; establishing; institution Forms: plural: foundations founder v. to fill with water and sink; to fall; to fail; to stumble; to cause to sink Forms: foundered; foundered; foundering founder n. establisher; organization or channel; person who gives authorization to operate a channel Forms: plural: founders fraction n. product of the division of one number by another; part of a whole; segment; fragment; quotient Forms: plural: fractions frame v. to contrive false evidence against; to set up; to construct; to build; to fashion; to formulate Forms: framed; framed; framing frame fraction132. 131. frame n. casing; skeleton; structure; body structure; mood Forms: plural: frames framework n. support; skeleton; structure; system Forms: plural: frameworks framework frame134. 133. franchise right to vote Forms: franchised; franchised; franchising franchise business which has been granted a license Forms: plural: franchises franchise franchise136. 135. v. to grant a license to an individual or group; to grant the n. license to market a company's goods or services; franchisor n. person who has the right to grant a license Forms: plural: franchisors frank v. to deliver without charge Forms: franked; franked; franking frank franchisor138. 137. frank adj. honest; sincere; straightforward; open; candid frank n. mark or signature which allows a letter or package to be sent free of charge Forms: plural: franks fraud n. swindle; deceit; cheating; forgery; embezzlement Forms: plural: frauds fraudulent adj. guilty; dishonest freight fraught144. 143. fraudulent fraud142. 141. frank frank140. 139. 91 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words fraught adj. full of or accompanied by; charged with; laden with freight v. to load with goods; to load; to weigh down; to send as cargo Forms: freighted; freighted; freighting freight n. cargo or goods that are shipped for a fee; shipping cost; transportation; conveyance; shipment Forms: plural: freights frequency n. quality of occurring regularly; rate at which a function reoccurs Forms: plural: frequencies frequency freight146. 145. frequent adj. happening often; regular; common; usual frequent v. to go regularly to (a certain place); to patronize Forms: frequented; frequented; frequenting frequently adv. regularly; often frisky adj. energetic; full of life; playful; lively frisky frequently150. 149. frequent frequent148. 147. fuel v. to provide with a combustible substance that provides energy Forms: fueled; fueled; fueling fuel n. substance burned to create energy (petrol, gasoline, gas, wood, coal, etc.) Forms: plural: fuels fuel fuel152. 151. fueled adj. filled with petrol, gas or another substance that produces energy fulfill v. to realize; to make a reality; to accomplish; to complete; to execute Forms: fulfilled; fulfilled; fulfilling fulfillment n. realization; performance; completion; gratification; satisfaction Forms: plural: fulfillments Forms: functioned; functioned; functioning function v. to work; to act; to operate; to perform function fulfillment156. 155. fulfill fueled154. 153. function n. duty; role; purpose; feature; convention fund v. to finance; to supply with money; to allocate financial sums; to extend a short-term obligation Forms: plural: functions Forms: funded; funded; funding fund function158. 157. fundamental fund160. 159. 92 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net F 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words fund n. amount of money set aside for a specific purpose; supply Forms: plural: funds fundamental adj. basic; elemental; essential fundamental n. principle; basis; essential Forms: plural: fundamentals funnel v. to channel; to centralize Forms: funneled; funneled; funneling funnel fundamental162. 161. funnel it reaches the bottom Forms: plural: funnels furniture desks, cabinets, closets, etc.) Forms: no plural further adv. to a greater distance; more; in addition further v. to advance; to encourage; to promote; to assist Forms: furthered; furthered; furthering fussy adj. exacting; choosy; ornate; nagging; annoying further funnelled funnelled funnel164. 163. n. device with a wide opening at the top which narrows as adj. channeled; centralized further furniture166. 165. n. movable articles for use in a home or office (i.e. chairs, adj. more distant; additional fussy 169. further further168. 167. 93 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net G G.N.P. G.D.P.2. G1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words G.D.P. one year excluding payments on foreign investments Forms: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) gain gain4. 3. G.N.P. country in a given period (generally one year) Forms: Gross National Product (GNP) abbr. total goods and services produced by nation during abbr. total value of goods and services produced by a gain n. profit; assets; achievement; increase; benefit; advantage Forms: plural: gains Forms: gained; gained; gaining gain v. to acquire; to earn; to purchase; to obtain; to profit gap n. opening; breach; hiatus; space; great difference; disparity Forms: plural: gaps Forms: no plural garbage n. something that is discarded; rubbish; trash; junk; waste garbage gap6. 5. garment n. piece of clothing; outer covering garner n. place where grain is stored; granary; storehouse; collection; store Forms: plural: garments Forms: plural: garners garner garment8. 7. garner reserve Forms: garnered; garnered; garnering gasoline as fuel, etc.) Forms: plural: gasolines gasoline garner10. 9. v. to collect; to gather; to accumulate; to store; to place in n. flammable liquid mixture derived from petroleum (used gate n. portion of a wall or fence that opens and closes; any barrier which opens and closes; entrance; entryway Forms: plural: gates Forms: plural: gathers gather n. drawing together; fold; pucker gather gate12. 11. gather v. to assemble; to collect; to accumulate; to conclude; to deduce Forms: gathered; gathered; gathering Forms: plural: gatherings gathering n. assembly; meeting; convention; cluster; collection gathering gather14. 13. gauge gauge16. 15. 94 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net G 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words gauge n. standard of measure; device for measuring (pressure, amount, distance, etc.) Forms: plural: gauges general general18. 17. gauge v. to measure; to evaluate; to determine; to estimate Forms: gauged; gauged; gauging general n. high ranking military officer Forms: plural: generals generate v. to create; to produce; to bring into being generation n. production; creating; group of people born around the same time Forms: generated; generated; generating Forms: plural: generations general adj. inclusive; of all things generation generate20. 19. generous adj. benevolent; giving; unselfish; abundant; plentiful genuine adj. original; real; true; natural; honest; sincere genuine generous22. 21. germane adj. pertinent; relevant; connected get v. to receive; to obtain; to purchase; to bring; to persuade Forms: got; gotten; getting get into v. to enter Forms: got into; gotten into; getting into get on with v. to continue Forms: got on with; gotten on with; getting on with with on get into26. get 25. get germane24. 23. get over v. to recover Forms: got over; gotten over; getting over get through with v. to finish; to complete Forms: got through with; gotten through with; getting through with gift n. present; talent; offering Forms: plural: gifts give up v. to surrender; to quit; to stop doing Forms: gave up; given up; giving up global adj. worldwide; universal; of the whole world gifted adj. talented; skilled; having great natural ability glossary globe34. 33. global up32. give 31. gifted gift30. 29. with through get over28. get 27. 95 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net G 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words globe n. ball; sphere; planet Earth; world glossary n. list of terms and definitions (usually at the end of a book); dictionary of technical or specific terms Forms: plural: globes glove glossy36. 35. Forms: plural: glossaries glossy adj. shiny; polished; smooth glove n. protecting covering for the hand; padded covering for the hand Forms: plural: gloves go after v. to try to get; to attempt to get Forms: went after; gone after; going after go along with v. to comply; to conform; to follow; to agree Forms: went along with; gone along with; going along with go through v. to experience; to endure Forms: went through; gone through; going through goal n. target; aim; purpose; objective; destination Forms: plural: goals goal through40. go 39. with along go after38. go 37. good good good good42. 41. adj. excellent; pleasant; valid; competent; skilled; positive adv. nice; excellent; of high quality good n. product; item; asset; benefit Forms: plural: goods grade grade46. 45. government good44. 43. government n. ruling of a country or area; political control; authority Forms: plural: governments grade v. to give a mark to; to classify; to make level; to evaluate; to assess Forms: graded; graded; grading grade n. mark; level; degree; rank; type; extend; class (in a school) Forms: plural: grades gradually adv. progressively graduate v. to complete a course of study and receive a degree or diploma Forms: graduated; graduated; graduating graduate graduate50. 49. graduate gradually48. 47. 96 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net G 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words graduate adj. having a degree or diploma; concerning studies beyond a bachelor's degree graduate n. person who has completed a course of study and received a degree or diploma Forms: plural: graduates grain v. to crumble into granules Forms: grained; grained; graining grain n. cereal; seed; granule; particle; texture; weave Forms: plural: grains grain grain52. 51. grant v. to agree; to give; to bestow; to answer to; to donate Forms: granted; granted; granting grant n. award; gift; present; contribution; donation Forms: plural: grants grant grant54. 53. graph v. to represent by chart; to draw a curve representing a given function Forms: graphed; graphed; graphing Forms: plural: graphs graph n. diagram; chart graph graph56. 55. grasp v. to seize; to grip; to comprehend; to understand; to realize Forms: grasped; grasped; grasping Forms: plural: grasps grasp n. hold; understanding; knowledge; realization grasp grasp58. 57. grateful adj. thankful; appreciative; expressing thanks gratitude n. thankfulness; appreciation Forms: no plural gratuity n. tip; bonus; recompense Forms: plural: gratuities greenhouse n. structure built mainly of glass in which plants are cultivated out of season Forms: plural: greenhouses grit v. to grind the teeth together; to abrade; to grind; to make a harsh grinding noise Forms: gritted; gritted; gritting great adj. large; important; huge; immense; wonderful; exciting grit greenhouse64. 63. great gratuity62. 61. gratitude grateful60. 59. grocer grit66. 65. 97 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net G 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words grit n. small rough granules or particles (i.e. sand); bravery; pluck; endurance Forms: plural: grits grocery groceries68. 67. grocer n. person who owns and operates a food store Forms: plural: grocers groceries n. foods and other goods sold at a small supermarket or store Forms: only plural Forms: plural: groceries grocery n. store which sells food and other household goods groom v. to tend carefully; to take care of; to make clean and tidy; to prepare for Forms: groomed; groomed; grooming Forms: plural: no plural grooming n. process of making neat and attractive grooming groom70. 69. gross v. to make or earn a total of (before taxes and other expenses) Forms: grossed; grossed; grossing gross n. 12 dozen; 144 grow v. to become larger; to cultivate; to be changed; to turn into Forms: plural: grosses Forms: grew; grown; growing gross adj. inclusive; complete; total; general; without deductions grow gross74. 73. gross gross72. 71. growth n. development; progress Forms: no plural guarantee v. to vouch for; to give a warranty; to assure; to promise Forms: guaranteed; guaranteed; guaranteeing guarantee growth76. 75. guarantee n. security; warranty; pledge; assurance Forms: plural: guarantees guess v. to suppose; to hypothesize; to conjecture Forms: guessed; guessed; guessing guess guarantee78. 77. guess n. conjecture; supposition; hypothesis Forms: plural: guesses guide v. to direct; to lead; to instruct Forms: guided; guided; guiding guide guess80. 79. guideline guide82. 81. 98 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net G 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words guide n. instructor; director; escort; leader; manual; handbook guideline n. instructions; manual; handbook; indication of acceptable conduct or procedure Forms: plural: guides guilty guilt84. 83. Forms: plural: guidelines guilt n. state of having committed a crime or offense; culpability; feeling of having done something wrong Forms: plural: no plural gymnasium n. building for indoor sports and exercise; fitness center Forms: plural: gymnasiums guilty adj. deserving of punishment; responsible gymnasium 85. 99 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net H HTML H.R.2. H1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words H.R. abbr. manpower; personnel; human work force; human labor; staff Forms: Human Resources (HR) hallmark habit4. 3. HTML abbr. language used to write pages and sites for the Internet Forms: hypertext markup language habit n. custom; something that one is used to doing; part of a routine; behavior pattern Forms: plural: habits Forms: plural: hallmarks hallmark n. identifying characteristic halt n. temporary stop; standstill; break or pause in a march or journey Forms: plural: halts halt v. to stop; to cause to stop; to pause; to hesitate; to be uncertain Forms: halted; halted; halting halt halt6. 5. handbook n. manual; guide; guideline; document containing instructions Forms: plural: handbooks handle n. part of an object designed to be gripped by the hand; fist name; nickname; code name; title Forms: plural: handles handle handbook8. 7. handle v. to manage; to process; to deal in; to do business with; to treat Forms: handled; handled; handling Forms: plural: handlings handling n. care; treatment; procedure; system; touch handling handle10. 9. hard adj. difficult; complicated; rigid; stiff hard adv. strenuously; with great effort; to the full extent; intently; to the extreme limit harmful adj. injurious; causing damage harmonize v. to agree; to reconcile; to be in concert with Forms: harmonized; harmonized; harmonizing harmony n. unity; agreement; accord; pleasing balance; symmetry harness n. straps and other parts by which a draft animal is attached to a vehicle Forms: plural: harmonies Forms: no plural harness harmony16. 15. harmonize harmful14. 13. hard hard12. 11. harvest harness18. 17. 100 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net H 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words harness v. to use; to apply; to employ; to control; to channel Forms: harnessed; harnessed; harnessing hazard harvest20. 19. harvest n. reaping; gathering in of crops; outcome; product Forms: plural: harvests harvest v. to reap; to gather in ripe crops; to catch; to gather Forms: harvested; harvested; harvesting hazard n. danger; risk; game of chance Forms: plural: hazards hazard v. to endanger; to imperil; to dare; to venture Forms: hazarded; hazarded; hazarding haze n. fog; mist; obscurity; vagueness haze v. to treat someone new in a humiliating manner; to harass; to humiliate Forms: plural: hazes Forms: hazed; hazed; hazing hazardous adj. dangerous; risky; perilous haze haze24. 23. hazardous hazard22. 21. head adj. chief; leading; main; principal head n. mind; understanding; leader; person in authority; top Forms: plural: heads head v. to lead; to be in charge; to direct; to be at the front; to go in a certain direction Forms: headed; headed; heading headquarter v. to set up a center of operations; to be set up in a center of operations Forms: headquartered; headquartered; headquartering headquarter head28. 27. head head26. 25. headquarters n. main office; central office of a company; center of operation Forms: only plural Forms: no plural headway n. progress; advance headway headquarters30. 29. health n. physical or mental well-being; freedom from disease Forms: no plural healthy adj. well; not sick; fit; sound hem helicopter34. 33. healthy health32. 31. 101 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net H 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words helicopter n. aircraft which flies by means of horizontally rotating blades Forms: plural: helicopters hesitate hem36. 35. hem n. folded and stitched down edge of cloth; edge of a garment Forms: plural: hems hem v. to surround; to enclose; to hesitate; to falter in speaking Forms: hemmed; hemmed; hemming hesitate v. to waver; to be uncertain; to vacillate; to falter; to be indecisive Forms: hesitated; hesitated; hesitating hesitation n. pausing; stammering; faltering Forms: plural: hesitations hide v. to conceal; to cover up; to keep secret; to place out of sight Forms: hid; hidden; hiding Forms: plural: hires hire n. wages; rent; rental; charge; fee hidden adj. concealed; secret; not to be seen; ulterior hire hide40. 39. hidden hesitation38. 37. hire v. to lease; to rent; to employ hit n. stroke; blow; collision; success; popular event or production Forms: hired; hired; hiring Forms: plural: hits hit hire42. 41. hit v. to strike; to beat; to reach; to find; to collide Forms: hit; hit; hitting honest adj. truthful; candid; frank honesty n. truthfulness; sincerity; integrity; frankness Forms: no plural honor n. esteem; respect; integrity; honesty; award; privilege honor v. to respect; to esteem; to pay tribute; to praise; to accept Forms: plural: honors Forms: honored; honored; honoring homebound adj. confined usually by illness honor honor48. 47. honesty honest46. 45. homebound hit44. 43. hospital horrible50. 49. 102 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net H 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words horrible adj. terrible; awful; disgusting hospital n. location where sick and injured people receive medical treatment Forms: plural: hospitals host n. person who receives guests; large number; multitude (of people or things) Forms: plural: hosts host v. to act as master of ceremonies; to receive guests into one's home; to give a party Forms: hosted; hosted; hosting host host52. 51. hourly adj. continual house adj. pertaining to accommodations; domesticated house hourly54. 53. house n. building used for a particular purpose; business; audience; legislative body Forms: plural: houses house v. to accommodate someone; to stay; to reside; to dwell; to store; to shelter Forms: housed; housed; housing house house56. 55. housing n. lodging; dwelling Forms: plural: housing however conj. in what way? hr abbr. period of 60 minutes Forms: hour humidity n. dampness; moistness; mugginess Forms: no plural hurry v. to make haste; to rush; to urge; to prod; to dash Forms: hurried; hurried; hurrying however adv. in any event; anyway hurry humidity62. 61. hr however60. 59. however housing58. 57. hurry n. rush; haste; urgency hyphen n. short dash; short line used to connect or separate words or syllables (-) Forms: no plural Forms: plural: hyphens hyphen hurry64. 63. 103 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I I.P.O. I.O.U.2. I1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words I.O.U. abbr. signed note acknowledging a debt I.P.O. abbr. first offering to the public of a company's shares on the stock market Forms: I owe you (IOU) i.e. Inc.4. 3. Forms: Initial Public Offering (IPO) Inc. abbr. legally established as a corporation Forms: incorporated i.e. abbr. that is to say (Latin); for example; for instance Forms: id est (i.e.) idea n. concept; thought; opinion; intention; plan Forms: plural: ideas ideal n. standard of perfection; pattern; model; person or thing that embodies a standard of perfection Forms: plural: ideals Forms: idealized; idealized; idealizing idealize v. to represent as the embodiment of perfection ideal adj. perfect; imaginary; excellent; best; exemplary idealize ideal8. 7. ideal idea6. 5. identification n. verification of a person or thing; recognition identify v. to recognize; to show to be the same; to sympathize; to relate Forms: plural: identifications Forms: identified; identified; identifying identify identification10. 9. idle adj. lazy; vain; unoccupied; unemployed idle v. to lounge; to do nothing; to laze around Forms: idled; idled; idling ignorance n. lack of knowledge; illiteracy; lack of education; state of being uninformed Forms: no plural ignore v. to disregard; to overlook; to refuse to recognize; to reject Forms: ignored; ignored; ignoring ignore ignorance14. 13. idle idle12. 11. ill adj. sick; bad; unfriendly; unsatisfactory; inadequate; inferior ill adv. with difficulty; barely; scarcely; poorly; improperly illustrate ill18. 17. ill ill16. 15. 104 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words ill n. trouble; misfortune; evil; harm; disease; sickness Forms: plural: ills image illustration20. 19. illustrate v. to exemplify; to clarify; to explain; to depict; to elucidate Forms: illustrated; illustrated; illustrating illustration n. picture in a book or other work; explanation; clarification Forms: plural: illustrations image v. to draw a likeness; to describe; to reflect; to picture in the mind Forms: imaged; imaged; imaging image n. figure; form; reflection; picture; likeness; embodiment Forms: plural: images imagination n. ability of the mind to create mental pictures which do not exist in reality Forms: plural: imaginations imagine v. to envision; to fantasize; to visualize; to think; to assume Forms: imagined; imagined; imagining imaginary adj. not real; fanciful imagine imagination24. 23. imaginary image22. 21. imaging n. forming of mental pictures to control bodily processes Forms: no plural imagining n. fantasizing; visualizing Forms: plural: imaginings imagining imaging26. 25. immediate adj. instantaneous; prompt; direct; close immediately conj. as soon as immediately immediate28. 27. immediately adj. right away; shortly; at once; without delay impact v. to influence; to affect strongly; to collide; to squeeze in Forms: impacted; impacted; impacting impact n. influence; effect; colliding of two bodies; touch Forms: plural: impacts impede v. to delay; to obstruct; to hinder; to prevent; to thwart Forms: impeded; impeded; impeding imperative adj. necessary; obligatory; commanding impatient adj. unable to wait; intolerant; restless implement imperative36. 35. imperative impede34. 33. impatient impact32. 31. impact immediately30. 29. 105 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words imperative n. necessity; obligation; command; order implement v. to perform; to put into effect; to carry out; to execute; to realize Forms: plural: imperatives implementation implement38. 37. Forms: implemented; implemented; implementing implement n. tool; instrument; piece of equipment implementation n. realization; carrying out; performing; putting into effect; execution Forms: plural: implements Forms: plural: implementations implication n. consequence; outcome; result; indirect suggestion; connotation; hint Forms: plural: implications Forms: implied; implied; implying imply v. to suggest indirectly; to hint; to infer; to mean; to import imply implication40. 39. import v. to bring from another place; to bring goods from a foreign country; to signify; to imply Forms: imported; imported; importing import n. brining in of goods from another country; opposite of export; meaning; significance Forms: plural: imports import import42. 41. important adj. significant; influential; essential; crucial; critical impose v. to require; to compel; to force upon; to enforce; to institute Forms: imposed; imposed; imposing impossible adj. unbearable; cannot be done; cannot be endured impress v. to affect strongly; to emphasize; to stamp Forms: impressed; impressed; impressing impression n. strong feeling or idea left by an experience; effect; vague memory Forms: plural: impressions impressive adj. grand; magnificent; striking improvement improve50. 49. impressive impression48. 47. impress impossible46. 45. impose important44. 43. 106 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words improve v. to make better; to increase in quality; to enhance; to develop Forms: improved; improved; improving inalienable impulse52. 51. improvement n. something which enhances or improves; addition or change which adds value to something Forms: plural: improvements impulse n. instinctual urge; sudden desire; whim; wave of energy sent via a nerve Forms: plural: impulses inanimate adj. lifeless; spiritless inbound adj. traveling in an inward direction inalienable adj. non-transferable inbound inanimate54. 53. incentive adj. provocative; stimulating; encouraging incentive n. stimulus; inducement; enticement; encouragement Forms: plural: incentives incinerator n. furnace which burns things to ashes Forms: plural: incinerators incline v. to slope; to bend; to bow; to slant; to influence Forms: inclined; inclined; inclining incline incinerator58. 57. incentive incentive56. 55. incline n. slope; grade; slant Forms: plural: inclines include v. to comprise; to contain; to embrace Forms: included; included; including include incline60. 59. including adj. comprising; containing; embracing inclusive adj. containing; comprehensive; all-embracing; extensive; taking in income n. amount of money received in payment for goods or services or from other sources; revenue; profits Forms: plural: incomes Forms: inconvenienced; inconvenienced; inconveniencing inconvenience v. to cause discomfort; to trouble; to put out; to disturb incorrect inconvenience66. 65. inconvenience income64. 63. inclusive including62. 61. 107 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words inconvenience n. bother; disturbance; nuisance; discomfort Forms: plural: inconveniences incorrect adj. wrong; erroneous; imprecise; unseemly; improper increase v. to enlarge; to add to; to multiply; to raise; to intensify Forms: increased; increased; increasing increase n. growth; expansion; addition; enlargement; escalation Forms: plural: increases increase increase68. 67. incredible adj. unbelievable; inconceivable; fabulous; great; amazing incumbent adj. presently holding an office or position; compulsory; necessary; resting; lying incumbent incredible70. 69. incumbent n. person who currently holds an office or position Forms: plural: incumbents incur v. to meet with; to bring upon oneself; to acquire Forms: incurred; incurred; incurring incur incumbent72. 71. independent adj. free; autonomous; sovereign; self-reliant; selfsufficient Forms: plural: independents index v. to register; to adjust prices or salaries in accordance with changes in economic indicators Forms: indexed; indexed; indexing index n. list of subjects or other information arranged in alphabetical order; indicator; sign Forms: plural: indexes independent n. person who does not belong to any political party index index76. 75. independent independent74. 73. indicate v. to show; to point out; to mark; to signify; to imply; to exhibit Forms: indicated; indicated; indicating induce v. to cause; to bring about; to set in motion; to influence indulge v. to give in to desire; to yield to; to satisfy; to spoil; to humor Forms: induced; induced; inducing Forms: indulged; indulged; indulging indoor adj. occurring within a building; meant to be used inside indulge induce80. 79. indoor indicate78. 77. industrialize indulgence82. 81. 108 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words indulgence n. act of giving in to desire; something which gratifies; luxury; leniency Forms: plural: indulgences infancy industry84. 83. industrialize v. to innovate and develop production Forms: industrialized; industrialized; industrializing industry n. manufacturing; trade; diligence; perseverance; tendency to work hard Forms: plural: industries Forms: plural: infancies infancy n. beginning phase of a project; babyhood infant adj. pertaining to a minor infant n. baby; very young child; toddler; tot; minor Forms: plural: infants infer v. to derive; to conclude; to guess; to surmise; to hint Forms: inferred; inferred; inferring inference n. act of deriving; speculation; drawing of a conclusion Forms: plural: inferences inference infer88. 87. infant infant86. 85. inflation n. increase in the supply of money in relation to the amount of goods available resulting in a rise in prices Forms: plural: inflations Forms: inflicted; inflicted; inflicting inflict v. to impose; to cause something unpleasant inflict inflation90. 89. influence n. effect; impact; person or thing which has power to affect others Forms: plural: influences Forms: influenced; influenced; influencing influence v. to affect; to impact; to impel; to control influence influence92. 91. influx n. inflow; inward flow; place where a stream flows into another body of water Forms: plural: influxes Forms: informed; informed; informing inform v. to communicate data to; to tell; to brief; to notify inform influx94. 93. informal adj. unofficial; relaxed; casual; easy; laid-back information n. knowledge; intelligence; data Forms: no plural inhabit ingredient98. 97. information informal96. 95. 109 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words ingredient n. component; element; factor; one of the substances which comprises a mixture Forms: plural: ingredients inherent inhabitant100. 99. inhabit v. to occupy; to live in; to dwell in; to reside in; to populate Forms: inhabited; inhabited; inhabiting inhabitant occupant Forms: plural: inhabitants initial n. beginning letter of a person's first name; first letter (as of a word) Forms: plural: initials Forms: initialed; initialed; initialing initial v. to sign using the first letter or letters of a name inherent natural; inborn n. person who lives in a particular place; resident; tenant; adj. intrinsic; existing as a natural and integral part; initial initial102. 101. initialed adj. signed with initials; marked with the first letter or letter of a name initiate v. to set going; to launch; to begin; to start Forms: initiated; initiated; initiating initiative n. enterprise; drive; ambition; beginning move in a process; first step Forms: plural: initiatives Forms: injured; injured; injuring injure v. to hurt; to wound; to insult; to offend; to damage initiative adj. beginning; introductory initially adv. at first; in the first place; at the beginning injure initiative108. 107. initiative initiate106. 105. initially initialed104. 103. injured adj. hurt; wounded; insulted; offended; damaged injury n. hurt; wound; harm; damage; insult Forms: plural: injuries innocent adj. not guilty; pure; simple; naive; unsophisticated; harmless Forms: plural: innocents innocent n. person who is free from sin or wrongdoing innovation innovate114. 113. innocent innocent112. 111. injury injured110. 109. 110 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words innovate v. to make changes; to create something new; to invent innovation n. introduction of something new; change; new method or practice Forms: innovated; innovated; innovating inquiry innovator116. 115. Forms: plural: innovations innovator n. person who makes changes; person who introduces new methods or procedures; creative person Forms: plural: innovators Forms: plural: inquiries inquiry n. formal question; exploration; questioning; investigation insert v. to place in; to put in; to add to insert n. something created separately for the purpose of being added to or placed inside (a book, newspaper, etc.) Forms: inserted; inserted; inserting Forms: plural: inserts insert insert118. 117. insist v. to demand; to emphasize firmly; to request firmly; to require; to persevere Forms: insisted; insisted; insisting inspect v. to check; to look over carefully and critically; to examine officially; to review Forms: inspected; inspect; inspecting inspect insist120. 119. inspection n. act of looking over carefully and critically; official examination; audit; review Forms: plural: inspections inspector n. person whose job it is to supervise and examine; police officer ranking below a superintendent Forms: plural: inspectors inspector inspection122. 121. inspiration n. stimulus; motivation; revelation; insight; idea inspire v. to motivate; to stimulate; to provoke; to influence; to encourage Forms: plural: inspiration Forms: inspired; inspired; inspiring inspire inspiration124. 123. inspiring adj. motivating; stimulating; encouraging; provoking; inhaling install v. to set up for use; to put in (i.e. machinery); to establish in an office or position Forms: installed; installed; installing instance instalment128. 127. install inspiring126. 125. 111 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words instalment n. one of several separate payments into which a debt has been divided Forms: plural: instalments instant instance130. 129. instance v. to refer to a case or occurrence to explain or prove a point; to cite; to mention Forms: instanced; instanced; instancing instance n. occurrence; occasion; example; illustration Forms: plural: instances instant n. moment; very short space of time; current month Forms: plural: instants instead adv. in place of; as a replacement instinctively adv. naturally; spontaneously; intuitively; automatically instantaneously adv. immediately; momentarily instant adj. immediate; quick; urgent; pressing; present; current instinctively instead134. 133. instantaneously instant132. 131. institute v. to establish; to set up; to begin; to initiate; to start institute n. foundation; organization which provides a certain service or supports a particular cause Forms: instituted; instituted; instituting Forms: plural: institutes institute institute136. 135. institution n. organization; custom; convention; law or activity which is accepted in a society Forms: plural: institutions instruct v. to inform; to direct; to guide; to command; to order; to educate Forms: instructed; instructed; instructing instruct institution138. 137. instruction n. teaching; direction; guidance; training; education; information Forms: plural: instructions Forms: plural: instructors instructor n. educator; teacher; trainer instructor instruction140. 139. instrument v. to equip with devices for measuring, recording, or controlling Forms: instrumented; instrumented; instrumenting Forms: plural: instruments instrument n. tool; implement; device; appliance; agent; means instrument instrument142. 141. insult insulate144. 143. 112 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words insulate v. to separate from others; to segregate Forms: insulated; insulated; insulating insurance insult146. 145. insult n. affront; offense; rude remark or action Forms: plural: insults insult v. to speak or act in a rude or contemptuous manner; to offend; to affront Forms: insulted; insulted; insulting insurance n. contract by which property or persons are guaranteed against damage or loss Forms: plural: insurance insure v. to provide a guarantee against possible damage or loss; to make certain Forms: insured; insured; insuring Forms: plural: no plural integrity n. honesty; uprightness; morality; wholeness; unity integrity insure148. 147. intelligence information Forms: plural: no plural intend designate for a particular purpose Forms: intended; intended; intending intend intelligence150. 149. n. ability to reason and understand; cleverness; brilliance; v. to plan; to mean; to have in mind do or accomplish; to intense adj. extreme; great; powerful; strong; profound intensify v. to increase; to strengthen; to heighten Forms: intensified; intensified; intensifying intensity n. strength; energy; extreme degree; depth; clarity Forms: plural: intensities intent n. plan; goal; aim; objective; meaning intent adj. concentrated; focused; determined; resolute; purposeful Forms: plural: intents intention n. plan; aim; goal; purpose Forms: plural: intentions interchangeable adj. can be traded; can be substituted by something else intensive adj. characterized by a high degree; highly concentrated interest interest160. 159. interchangeable intention158. 157. intent intent156. 155. intensive intensity154. 153. intensify intense152. 151. 113 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words interest n. concern; affair; percentage on a loan which is paid over time Forms: plural: interests interim interfere162. 161. interest v. to cause to become involved in; to arouse curiosity Forms: interested; interested; interesting interfere v. to impede; to obstruct; to hinder; to meddle Forms: interfered; interfered; interfering interim adv. meanwhile; in the meantime interim n. temporary arrangement; in between period Forms: plural: interims interior n. inside a building; inland section of a country interior adj. inner; inside; inland; of a country's domestic affairs; of an individual's inner life Forms: plural: interiors interject v. to place between other things; to throw into the center of Forms: plural: interjected; interjected; interjecting internal n. inner quality; intrinsic characteristic internal adj. inner; inside; located within; of a country's domestic affairs Forms: plural: internals international adj. between countries; of relations between two or more countries Forms: internationalized; internationalized; internationalizing internationalize v. to globalize; to make worldwide intermittent adj. not continuous; sporadic; fitful; alternately stopping and starting interim adj. temporary; provisional interpreter interpret174. 173. internationalize international172. 171. internal internal170. 169. intermittent interject168. 167. interior interior166. 165. interim interim164. 163. 114 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words interpret v. to explain; to clarify; to elucidate; to understand or explain in a particular way Forms: interpreted; interpreted; interpreting interruption interrupt176. 175. interpreter n. person who translates from one language to another (orally); person how clarifies; commentator Forms: plural: interpreters interrupt v. to stop; to discontinue; to disturb; to bring a conversation to a halt Forms: interrupted; interrupted; interrupting Forms: plural: interruptions interruption n. disturbance; discontinuance; stoppage; cutting-off interview n. meeting at which a person is evaluated through questioning (as for a job) Forms: plural: interviews Forms: interviewed; interviewed; interviewing interview v. to question formally; to evaluate through questioning interview interview178. 177. interviewee n. person who is being asked questions; job candidate Forms: plural: interviewees interviewer n. person who ask questions (i.e. reporter or employer) Forms: plural: interviewers interviewer interviewee180. 179. intricate adj. complex; complicated; involved; entangled introduce v. to present for the first time; to initiate; to establish; to announce Forms: introduced; introduced; introducing introduction n. act of acquainting one person with another; preface Forms: plural: introductions invent v. to originate; to create; to design; to fabricate; to concoct Forms: invented; invented; inventing Forms: plural: inventions invention n. creativity; resourcefulness; fabrication; falsehood introductory adj. preliminary; beginning invention invent186. 185. introductory introduction184. 183. introduce intricate182. 181. inventive adj. creative; new; original inventor n. creator; designer Forms: plural: inventors inventory inventory190. 189. inventor inventive188. 187. 115 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words inventory n. stock; list of assets; act of checking stock inventory v. to make a detailed list of property; to summarize; to sum up the worth of Forms: plural: inventories investment invest192. 191. Forms: inventoried; inventoried; inventorying invest v. to expend money or effort for future benefits; to grant; to install; to cover; to authorize Forms: invested; invested; investing investment n. expenditure of money or effort for future benefits; authorization Forms: plural: investments investor n. person who puts money into a project Forms: plural: investors invitation n. request for one's presence; summons; call invite v. to request the presence of; to solicit; to attract; to encourage; to promote Forms: plural: invitations Forms: invited; invited; inviting invisible adj. impossible to see; imperceptible; hidden; concealed invite invitation196. 195. invisible investor194. 193. invoice n. bill Forms: plural: invoices invoice v. to bill; to charge Forms: invoiced; invoiced; invoicing invoice invoice198. 197. involve v. to cause to be concerned with; to engage; to engross involvement n. inclusion; participation; connection; association; relation Forms: involved; involved; involving Forms: plural: involvements involvement involve200. 199. irrelevant adj. beside the point; unconnected; impertinent; immaterial Forms: irritated; irritated; irritating irritated adj. annoyed; aggravated; exasperated irritation n. something which annoys or aggravates Forms: plural: irritations irritate v. to annoy; to bother; to aggravate; to anger issue issue206. 205. irritation irritated204. 203. irritate irrelevant202. 201. 116 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net I 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words issue n. topic; subject; matter; question; problem; publication Forms: plural: issues itemize item208. 207. issue v. to publish; to distribute; to circulate; to emit Forms: issued; issued; issuing item n. thing; object; article; news story; piece of information itemize v. to catalog; to list; to enumerate; to set down in full detail Forms: plural: items Forms: itemized; itemized; itemizing itinerary n. route; travel plans; travel journal Forms: plural: itineraries itinerary 209. 117 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net J jeopardy jeopardize2. J1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words jeopardize jeopardy v. to endanger; to place in danger; to imperil; to put at risk n. danger; peril; hazard; risk; endangerment Forms: jeopardized; jeopardized; jeopardizing join jeopardy4. 3. Forms: plural: jeopardies jeopardy join member Forms: jeopardized; jeopardized; jeopardizing Forms: joined; joined; joining v. to endanger; to imperil; to put at risk; to place in danger v. to attach; to connect; to unite; to combine; to become a joint venture n. collective enterprise; group endeavor; collaboration Forms: plural: joint ventures journal n. newspaper; magazine; diary; blog; bookkeeping ledger Forms: plural: journals journal venture6. joint 5. journalist n. reporter; person who writes for a newspaper or magazine; correspondent Forms: plural: journalists Forms: plural: journeys journey n. long trip; distance; voyage journey journalist8. 7. journey v. to travel; to take a trip judge n. person who presides over court trials; arbiter; expert; critic Forms: journeyed; journeyed; journeying Forms: plural: judges judge journey10. 9. judge v. to criticize; to assess; to determine; to rule Forms: judged; judged; judging junction n. intersection; crossing; connection Forms: plural: junctions junction judge12. 11. justify v. to vindicate; to defend; to support; to excuse Forms: justified; justified; justifying justify 13. 118 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net K keep keep2. K1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words keep n. wages; living; stronghold Forms: plural: keeps key key4. 3. keep v. to hold onto; to save; to store; to watch over; to care for Forms: kept; kept; keeping key n. device used to open locks; button on a board key v. to fit; to adapt; to adjust; to tune; to supply with an explanatory device Forms: plural: keys Forms: keyed; keyed; keying key adj. important; significant; fundamental; necessary; crucial kind n. type; sort; class; group of things which are classed together because of their similarities Forms: plural: kinds kind kindly sympathetically kit n. set; equipment; outfit; clothing; wash basin Forms: plural: kits kit v. to equip; to outfit with supplies Forms: kitted; kitted; kitting kindly kind8. 7. kind key6. 5. adj. gentle; good-hearted; understanding; compassionate adj. nicely; thoughtfully; graciously; considerately; kit kit10. 9. know v. to be acquainted with; to understand; to distinguish; to be aware of Forms: knew; known; knowing knowledge n. familiarity; understanding; wisdom; education; awareness Forms: no plural knowledge know12. 11. 119 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net L labor Ltd.2. L1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words Ltd. give its owners limited liability Forms: Limited (Ld., ld) lack labor4. 3. labor abbr. firm, company that is organized in such a way as to v. to work; to toil; to exert oneself; to work hard Forms: labored; labored; laboring labor n. strenuous physical or mental work; toil; exertion lack v. to be short of; to be without; to be missing; to need; to want Forms: plural: labors Forms: lacked; lacked; lacking lack n. need; want; shortage; absence Forms: plural: lacks landscape n. view; scenery; horizontal page orientation Forms: plural: landscapes landscape lack6. 5. landscaper n. person who designs gardens or large areas language n. spoken or written words with which people communicate thoughts and feelings Forms: plural: landscapers Forms: plural: languages language landscaper8. 7. large adj. big; enormous; wide; spacious; famous last v. to continue; to suffice; to endure; to persist Forms: lasted; lasted; lasting last adj. coming after all others; most recent; final; newest last adv. after all others; finally; at the end; most recently last last12. 11. last large10. 9. last n. end; conclusion; final appearance; power of endurance; vitality; unit of weight Forms: plural: lasts lasting n. strong durable fabric; persistence late adv. after the usual or expected time; tardily; recently; far on time; formerly Forms: plural: no plural lasting adj. continuing; enduring; remaining for a long time; durable launch late18. 17. late lasting16. 15. lasting last14. 13. 120 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net L 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words late tardy; slow; delayed launch adj. coming or occurring after the usual or expected time; v. to start; to run; to activate; to inaugurate; to break into Forms: launched; launched; launching launch n. act of sending out; act of starting or initiating; commencement; inauguration Forms: plural: launches lawyer lawsuit22. 21. law launch20. 19. law n. rule enacted by a community or country; custom; principle; convention Forms: plural: laws lawsuit n. case in a court of law brought by one party against another; legal claim Forms: plural: lawsuits lawyer n. person who represents people in a court or advises them on legal matters; attorney; barrister Forms: plural: lawyers lay off v. to postpone; to dismiss from a job; to fire layer n. thickness of some material that covers a surface; covering; bed; stratum Forms: laid off; laid off; laying off Forms: plural: layers layer off24. lay 23. layman n. unexperienced person layout n. arrangement; plan; sketch; drawing; something which has been arranged Forms: plural: laymen Forms: plural: layouts layout layman26. 25. lb abbr. pound; unit of weight in ancient Rome equaling approximately 12 ounces Forms: libra (lb.) Forms: led; led; leading lead v. to conduct; to guide; to direct; to influence lead lb28. 27. lead adj. most important; main; first; opening; beginning lead n. guidance; advance position; first place; guide Forms: plural: leads leaflet leader32. 31. lead lead30. 29. 121 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net L 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words leader n. head; chief; director; carrier; main article leaflet n. sheet of paper on which information has been printed; flyer Forms: plural: leaders lease leakage34. 33. Forms: plural: leaflets leakage n. something which escapes or passes through a hole or opening (i.e. liquid, gas, etc.) Forms: plural: leakages Forms: leased; leased; leasing lease v. to rent out property for a specific period of time; to let lease n. a contract granting use or occupation of property during a specified time for a specified payment Forms: plural: leases least adv. to the smallest extent possible least n. something which is smallest in size or importance Forms: plural: leasts leather n. tanned and preserved animal skin; item made of animal skin Forms: plural: leathers Forms: left; left; leaving leave v. to depart; to exit; to quit; to omit; to let alone least adj. smallest in size; smallest in amount; lowest in importance leave leather40. 39. least least38. 37. least lease36. 35. leave n. vacation; time off; permission to be absent; departure; farewell Forms: plural: leaves lecture v. to deliver a discourse before an audience; to reprimand tediously Forms: lectured; lectured; lecturing lecture leave42. 41. lecture n. discourse given before an audience; tedious reprimand; formal reproof Forms: plural: lectures legacy n. inheritance; bequest; something handed down from one's ancestors Forms: plural: legacies legacy lecture44. 43. legal adj. of or pertaining to the law; allowed by law legitimate adj. lawful; acceptable; justified; authorized legitimate legal46. 45. leisure legitimate48. 47. 122 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net L 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words legitimate v. to make valid; to make lawful; to justify; to make permissible Forms: legitimated; legitimated; legitimating lesson lend50. 49. leisure n. time free from work other demands and duties; free time; rest; recreation Forms: no plural lend v. to give on a temporary basis; to give money as a loan; to donate Forms: lent; lent; lending Forms: lessoned; lessoned; lessoning lesson v. to instruct; to teach; to scold; to reprove; to rebuke lesson n. exercise; assignment given to a student; something to be studied and learned Forms: plural: lessons letter n. character which is part of an alphabet; written communication sent to a person or organization Forms: plural: letters letter lesson52. 51. letterhead n. line printed at the top of a piece of stationary Forms: plural: letterheads level v. to straighten; to flatten; to make even; to equalize Forms: leveled; leveled; leveling level letterhead54. 53. level adj. straight; equal; even; honest level n. degree; rank; height; plane; flat horizontal plain Forms: plural: levels lever n. a simple machine that gives a mechanical advantage when given a fulcrum Forms: plural: levers leverage v. to use one's influence to affect people or circumstances Forms: leveraged; leveraged; leveraging leverage lever58. 57. level level56. 55. leverage n. influence; ability to affect or alter people or circumstance Forms: no plural Forms: levied; levied; levying levy v. to impose a tax or fine; to conscript troops levy leverage60. 59. levy n. a charge imposed and collected Forms: plural: levies liability n. financial obligation; debt; responsibility; obligation Forms: plural: liabilities liability levy62. 61. liberal liable64. 63. 123 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net L 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words liable adj. under legal obligation; responsible; prone liberal adj. in favor of reform; supporting a progressive philosophy; tolerant; open-minded liberal n. person who favors political and social reform Forms: plural: liberals library n. place where one can borrow books Forms: plural: libraries library liberal66. 65. license v. to grant a permit; to authorize; to permit; to allow license n. permit; official permission; authorization; document which shows proof of authorization; certificate Forms: licensed; licensed; licensing Forms: plural: licenses license license68. 67. lifestyle n. way of life Forms: plural: lifestyles likelihood n. probability; chance; feasibility; possibility Forms: no plural likelihood lifestyle70. 69. likely adj. reasonable; probable; possible; appropriate; promising limit v. to create boundaries; to restrict; to reduce; to function as a border Forms: limited; limited; limiting limit n. point at which something ends; edge; border; restriction; restraint Forms: plural: limits likely adv. seemingly; probably limit limit74. 73. likely likely72. 71. limited adj. confined within a boundary; restricted; narrow; mediocre Forms: lined; lined; lining line n. long thin mark; row; border; domain; tactic Forms: plural: lines link v. to join; to connect; to associate with; to relate to Forms: linked; linked; linking line v. to place in a row; to cover the inside of; to pad link line78. 77. line limited76. 75. list link80. 79. 124 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net L 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words link n. connection; relation; association; one ring of a chain; ring Forms: plural: links litter list82. 81. list v. to write or print a series of names or items according to a certain order; to inscribe; to record Forms: listed; listed; listing list n. roll; roster; inventory; strip; band litter v. to toss or dump garbage in an unauthorized place; to scatter objects in disorder Forms: plural: lists Forms: littered; littered; littering litter n. refuse; trash; disorder Forms: plural: litters load v. to fill; to pack (with goods, cargo, etc.) Forms: loaded; loaded; loading load litter84. 83. load n. something carried; cargo; burden; unit of measure or weight; capacity Forms: plural: loads loan v. to lend a sum of money for a period of time; to give temporarily Forms: loaned; loaned; loaning loan load86. 85. loan n. amount of money that has been borrowed; something borrowed; act of giving temporarily Forms: plural: loans local n. person who is native to or resides in a particular area Forms: plural: locals locate v. to situate; to place; to identify; to find; to settle Forms: located; located; locating local adj. characterized; by or occupying a particular place locate local90. 89. local loan88. 87. located adj. situated; placed; identified; found; existing; standing location n. place; position; situation; site; spot Forms: plural: locations lock lock other device Forms: locked; locked; locking Forms: plural: locks lock lock94. 93. location located92. 91. v. to fix in place; to link firmly together; to be held in place n. fastening mechanism which is opened with a key or logistics locksmith96. 95. 125 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net L 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words locksmith n. person who who makes and fixes keys and fasting mechanisms Forms: plural: locksmiths to forward look logo98. 97. logistics n. planning and execution; management of a business or other operation Forms: only plural logo n. graphic symbol which represents a company or organization Forms: plural: logos Forms: looked forward to; looked forward to; looking forward to look into v. to investigate Forms: looked into; looked into; looking into look over v. to examine Forms: looked over; looked over; looking over look forward to v. to anticipate gladly over look into100. look 99. loom v. to appear as a large and indistinct form; to appear as larger than life; to impend Forms: loomed; loomed; looming loom n. apparatus on which fabrics are woven; weaving machine Forms: plural: looms loom loom102. 101. loop v. to make circular shape loop n. fastener consisting of a metal ring for lining a small hole to permit the attachment of cords or lines Forms: looped; looped; looping Forms: plural: loops loop loop104. 103. lose v. to misplace; to be deprived of; to be defeated; to fail; opposite of to win Forms: lost; lost; losing Forms: plural: losses loss n. opposite of profit; deprivation; defeat; destruction loss lose106. 105. lounge v. to lie down; to recline; to move in a relaxed manner; to walk lazily Forms: lounged; lounged; lounging Forms: plural: lounges lounge n. sofa; couch; lobby; slow walk; stroll lounge lounge108. 107. loyalty loyal110. 109. 126 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net L 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words loyal adj. faithful; true to one's obligations loyalty n. faithfulness; devotion; constancy Forms: no plural lucid adj. comprehensible; intelligible; rational; transparent; bright luggage n. suitcases; cases and bags carried by travelers lumber n. trees that have been sawed into rough planks; useless items that been put in storage Forms: no plural Forms: no plural lucrative adj. profitable; yielding monetary rewards; gainful lumber luggage114. 113. lucrative lucid112. 111. lumber luncheon luncheon lumber116. 115. v. to move heavily or awkwardly; to accumulate; to collect n. afternoon party where a light meal is served Forms: lumbered; lumbered; lumbering Forms: plural: luncheons 127 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net M machine machine2. M1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words machine n. device made up of interconnected parts that work together to perform a given task or function Forms: plural: machines mail magnificent4. 3. machine v. to produce via mechanical means Forms: machined; machined; machining magnificent adj. splendid; majestic; superb; glorious; impressive mail n. postal service; letters and other items that are sent via the postal service Forms: no plural mail v. to send a letter or other item via the postal service; to post Forms: mailed; mailed; mailing mailing n. large batch of letters sent at one time by a single sender; rented property Forms: plural: mailings mailing mail6. 5. main n. principal pipe or duct in a system; chief part of something; strength or force; high sea Forms: plural: mains mainframe n. computer which can serve many users simultaneously maintain v. to keep in existence; to preserve; to support; to provide for Forms: plural: mainframes Forms: maintained; maintained; maintaining main adj. principal; head; chief maintain mainframe10. 9. main main8. 7. maintenance n. upkeep; repairs; livelihood; means of support major n. military rank above captain; main subject of study chosen by a college or university student Forms: no plural Forms: plural: majors major maintenance12. 11. major v. to specialize in a certain field Forms: majored; majored; majoring majority total Forms: plural: majorities Forms: plural: malls mall major adj. more important than others; great; serious mall majority16. 15. major major14. 13. n. greater number or part; number greater than half of the n. shopping center; pedestrian walkway; promenade management manage18. 17. 128 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net M 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words manage v. to administer; to direct; to supervise; to accomplish; to handle Forms: managed; managed; managing managerial manager20. 19. management n. person of group of people that runs and administers a business or other enterprise Forms: plural: managements manager n. person who runs a company; director; administrator; supervisor Forms: plural: managers mandate n. command; order; authorization granted from one body to a subordinate body Forms: plural: mandates Forms: mandated; mandated; mandating mandate v. to issue a command; to make an official order managerial adj. relating to supervision and responsibility mandate mandate22. 21. manner n. mode; fashion; style; behavior; way; type Forms: plural: manners manual n. instructional booklet; handbook Forms: plural: manuals manual manner24. 23. manual adj. physical; done using human skill or force manually adv. by hand; physically manually manual26. 25. manufacture n. product made by hand or by machine Forms: plural: manufactures manufacture v. to make by machine; to produce; to fabricate; to invent Forms: manufactured; manufactured; manufacturing manufacture manufacture28. 27. margin n. profit from the difference between costs and net sales margin v. to set apart an additional amount of space or money for security Forms: plural: margins Forms: margined; margined; margining margin margin30. 29. mark n. sign; indication; symbol; grade; trace Forms: plural: marks mark v. to indicate; to signal; to write down; to record; to notice Forms: marked; marked; marking mark mark32. 31. market market34. 33. 129 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net M 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words market n. demand for goods or services; rate of purchase and sale; fair Forms: plural: markets match match36. 35. market v. to sell; to trade or deal; to distribute; to promote Forms: marketed; marketed; marketing match n. competition; equal opponent; partner; counterweight; game Forms: plural: matches match v. to be compatible; to be suitable; to be an equal competitor; to compare Forms: matched; matched; matching maternal adj. motherly; related through a mother; relating to or characteristic of a mother or motherhood matter n. issue; affair; question; problem; substance of a particular composition and consistency Forms: plural: matters maximum n. greatest quantity or amount possible; highest capacity Forms: plural: maximums mayor n. elected official acting as executive head of a town or city Forms: plural: mayors mean n. midpoint; middle; equally far from two extremes; average Forms: plural: means maximum adj. greatest; most; utmost; highest mean mayor42. 41. maximum maximum40. 39. matter maternal38. 37. mean v. to signify; to be significant; to intend; to indicate Forms: meant; meant; meaning meaning n. definition; significance; intention; explanation Forms: plural: meanings means n. method; way; medium; resources; funds Forms: only plural measurable adj. estimable; determinable; assessable meaning adj. significant; important mean adj. average; middle; unkind; base; inferior measure measure50. 49. measurable means48. 47. meaning meaning46. 45. mean mean44. 43. 130 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net M 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words measure n. action; step; criterion; amount; degree; extent measure v. to gauge; to quantify; to assess; to evaluate; to estimate Forms: plural: measures medicine measurement52. 51. Forms: measured; measured; measuring measurement dimension Forms: plural: measurements medicine maintenance; remedy; drug Forms: plural: medicines n. calculation of size or extent; assessment of capacity or n. art and science of disease treatment and health mediocre adj. regular; ordinary; low-grade; poor medium n. means of expression; channel of communication; middle man; intermediary; broker Forms: plural: media member n. person who belongs to an organization or group; part; organ Forms: plural: members membership n. state of belonging to an organization or group; fellowship Forms: plural: memberships membership member56. 55. medium mediocre54. 53. memo n. reminder; internal document mend n. reform; repair; act of repairing; state of healing or improvement Forms: plural: memos Forms: plural: mends mend memo58. 57. mend v. to repair; to improve; to be improved Forms: mended; mended; mending mention n. direct or incidental reference; recognition of an achievement Forms: plural: mentions Forms: mentioned; mentioned; mentioning mention v. to remind of; to state; to refer to; to hint at; to indicate mental adj. of or relating to the mind; intellectual; psychosocial mention mention62. 61. mental mend60. 59. menu mentor64. 63. 131 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net M 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words mentor n. adviser; counselor; person who guides and teaches; spiritual instructor Forms: plural: mentors merchandise merchandise66. 65. menu n. list of choices; list of commands or options which may be selected Forms: plural: menus merchandise n. goods; ware; stock; articles or items to be sold merchandise v. to trade; to plan for and promote for sales of; to market goods Forms: no plural Forms: merchandised; merchandised; merchandising merge v. to blend; to be blended; to combine or unite into a single body; to be assimilated Forms: merged; merged; merging Forms: plural: mergers merger n. fusion; agglomeration merger merge68. 67. message n. communication; information; announcement; note; memo; intimation Forms: plural: messages messenger n. person employed to deliver official dispatches or go on special errands Forms: plural: messengers messenger message70. 69. meter n. instrument that automatically measures quantities of substances (gas, water or electricity) Forms: plural: meters method n. procedure; plan of action; way; manner in which one conducts business; technique Forms: plural: methods method meter72. 71. meticulous adj. pedantic; cautious concerning minute details; scrupulous Forms: plural: metropolitans metropolitan adj. characteristic of a capital city; sophisticated mid-range n. pertaining to a value that is approximately in the middle of a series of values Forms: plural: mid-ranges metropolitan n. resident of a capital city; sophisticated big-city person midmorning midday78. 77. mid-range metropolitan76. 75. metropolitan meticulous74. 73. 132 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net M 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words midday n. noon; 12 a.m. Forms: plural: middays might might80. 79. midmorning n. before noon Forms: no plural might n. strength; power; force; bravery Forms: plural: mights might v. can; to allow; to be possible; to wish Forms: could; might have millennium n. unit of time equal to one thousand years; thousandth year anniversary Forms: plural: millenniums Forms: plural: minds mind n. brain; memory; recollection; opinion; intention; desire mind millennium82. 81. mind v. to pay attention to; to supervise; to regret; to oppose; to remember; to notice Forms: minded; minded; minding minimum n. least possible amount; smallest possible size; lowest degree Forms: plural: minimums minimum mind84. 83. minimum adj. pertaining to the smallest; indicating the least minority n. part of a population differing in some characteristic; state of being under legal age Forms: plural: minorities minute n. unit of time equal to 60 seconds; 1/60 of an hour; memo; protocol; memorandum Forms: plural: minutes minute v. to record the proceedings of a meeting; to make a memorandum Forms: minuted; minuted; minuting minute minute88. 87. minority minimum86. 85. minute adj. tiny; extremely small; trivial; petty; accurate minutely adv. meticulously; exactingly; scrupulously; diligently; thoroughly miserably adv. without pleasure or happiness; wretchedly; poorly misgiving n. apprehension; worry; doubt; hesitation; reservation Forms: plural: misgivings mistake mission94. 93. misgiving miserably92. 91. minutely minute90. 89. 133 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net M 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words mission n. task; assignment; delegation; errand; religious delegation Forms: plural: missions mistreatment mistake96. 95. mistake n. blunder; fault; error Forms: plural: mistakes mistake v. to make an error; to be wrong; to confuse Forms: mistook; mistaken; mistaking mistreatment n. abuse; molestation Forms: no plural misunderstand v. to interpret incorrectly; to comprehend incorrectly misunderstanding n. incorrect interpretation misunderstanding misunderstand98. 97. Forms: misunderstood; misunderstood; misunderstanding Forms: plural: misunderstandings mitigate v. to soften in force or severity; to lessen the impact or intensity of; to appease Forms: mitigated; mitigated; mitigating modest moderately102. 101. mobilize mitigate100. 99. mobilize v. to move; to circulate; to draft; to assemble for action (especially armed reserves) Forms: mobilized; mobilized; mobilizing moderately adv. mildly; deliberatively; in a temperate manner; not excessively; reasonably modification mollify modest adj. humble; unpretentious; unassuming; simple; limited mollify modification104. 103. n. change; adjustment, agreement; adaptation; restriction v. to calm; to soften; to pacify; to relieve Forms: plural: modifications monetize momentum106. 105. Forms: mollified; mollified; mollifying momentum an initial effort Forms: plural: monumentums Forms: monetized; monetized; monetizing monetize n. force of movement; strength or motivation derived from v. to turn into profit; to generate revenue money n. coins and paper notes which have value; currency; medium of trade; wealth Forms: plural: monies or moneys money supply n. the total amount of funds in circulation in a given country's economy Forms: plural: money supplies supply money money108. 107. monitor monitor110. 109. 134 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net M 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words monitor v. to supervise; to observe; to follow up on; to check up on Forms: monitored; monitored; monitoring monitor n. supervisor; device for regulating; screen Forms: plurals: masc.: monitors; fem.: monitresses or monitrixes mood n. state of mind; predominant emotion moral adj. ethical; virtuous; righteous; principled; having integrity Forms: plural: moods moral n. ethic; lesson; principle mortgage v. to sign over property to a creditor as security for money that is owed; to obligate Forms: plural: morals Forms: mortgaged; mortgaged; mortgaging mortgage moral114. 113. moral mood112. 111. mortgage loan; pledging; lien Forms: plural: mortgages motivate action; to induce Forms: motivated; motivated; motivating motivate mortgage116. 115. n. conditional conveyance of property as for security on a v. to prompt; to spur; to provide inspiration; to stir to motivation n. incentive; drive; inspiration; state of being stirred to action Forms: plural: motivations motive n. something that causes a person to act; cause; incentive; purpose; intention Forms: plural: motives move v. to act on; to transfer from one place to another; to change residence Forms: moved; moved; moving motive adj. of reason or cause; inspiring to action move motive120. 119. motive motivation118. 117. move n. change of residence; action; turn in a game; formal request or proposition Forms: plural: moves Forms: month mth. abbr. period of about 30 days or 4 weeks; 1/12 of a year mth. move122. 121. mull mull124. 123. 135 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net M 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words mull v. to think over; to ponder; to contemplate; to heat and spice for drinking Forms: mulled: mulled: mulling must must126. 125. mull n. thin muslin fabric (Hindi); beach cliff (Scottish) Forms: plural: mulls must v. to have to; to be obligated; to be likely or probable must n. necessity; obligation; new wine; grape juice that has not yet fermented Forms: must; must; must Forms: no plural myriad n. great number of persons or things; many; a lot; composed of a countless number of items Forms: plural: myriads myriad 127. 136 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net N name N/A2. N1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words N/A abbr. describing something that can be left out isn't required Forms: not available; not applicable name name4. 3. name n. word or phrase by which someone or something is called or identified; moniker Forms: plural: names name v. to appoint; to specify; to identify; to designate Forms: named; named; naming narrow v. to limit; to restrict; to contract; to lessen in width; to taper Forms: narrowed; narrowed; narrowing nationality n. citizenship; patriotism Forms: plural: nationalities nearby adv. next to; alongside necessarily adv. as a logical result; unavoidably nearby adj. close at hand narrow adj. tight; strait; reduced; not wide name adj. reputed; famous necessarily nearby10. 9. nearby nationality8. 7. narrow narrow6. 5. necessary n. something that is essential or imperative; essentials of life (food, clothing, and shelter) Forms: plural: necessaries necessity n. obligation; need; requirement need n. requirement; shortage of an indispensable item; distress; hardship Forms: plural: necessities Forms: plural: needs necessary adj. vital; essential; indispensable; unavoidable need necessity14. 13. necessary necessary12. 11. need obligated Forms: needed; needed; needing Forms: plural: neglects neglect neglect need16. 15. v. to require; to be in distress; to be under hardship; to be n. disregard; inattention; forgetfulness; abandonment negligence neglect18. 17. 137 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net N 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words neglect v. to disregard; to ignore; to forget to perform (a duty); to shirk; to abandon Forms: neglected; neglected; neglecting negotiate negotiable20. 19. negligence n. neglect; disregard; carelessness; failure to provide the necessary provision for (Law) Forms: no plural negotiable adj. describing an asset or item which can easily be sold or transferred negotiate v. to bargain; to deal; to work out; to compromise; to clear or pass an obstacle Forms: negotiated; negotiated; negotiating negotiator n. person who participates in a bargaining session Forms: plurals: masc.: negotiators; fem.: negotiatrixes news n. report of recent events; information about previously unknown facts Forms: no plural newsletter n. short informational periodical that is usually distributed to the members of an interest group Forms: plural: newsletters nevertheless adv. anyway; anyhow; still; all the same newsletter news24. 23. nevertheless negotiator22. 21. nexus n. means of connection; link; joint; connected group no. abbr. numeral; mathematical value or its symbol; unit in a series; part Forms: plural: nexuses Forms: number no. nexus26. 25. nominate v. to appoint someone (for a position, office, or honor); to designate; to select Forms: nominated; nominated; nominating nomination n. appointment; proposal of a candidate (for an office or an honor) Forms: plural: nominations nomination nominate28. 27. nominee n. person who has been appointed; candidate note v. not intended to earn profits; to observe; to remark on; to make a comment; to record Forms: plural: nominees Forms: noted; noted; noting note nominee30. 29. notebook note32. 31. 138 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net N 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words note n. short written reminder; memo; brief informal letter; official message Forms: plural: notes notice notice34. 33. notebook n. portable personal computer; laptop computer Forms: plural: notebooks notice v. to discern; to perceive; to pay attention; to observe; to remark Forms: noticed; noticed; noticing notice n. announcement; poster, sign; warning; attention; consideration Forms: plural: notices novel adj. new; strange novel n. piece of long fiction with a plot and characters; story Forms: plural: novels novelty n. innovation; something new; discovery Forms: plural: novelties nuance n. slight difference; subtle distinction Forms: plural: nuances nuance novelty38. 37. novel novel36. 35. number v. to count; to equal in amount; to limit; to allot number adj. anesthetized; lacking sensitivity (to pain); in shock; senseless Forms: numbered; numbered; numbering number n. mathematical value or its symbol; indefinite amount; quantity of; sum Forms: plural: numbers nurse v. to breast-feed; to suckle; to provide medical care; to take care of Forms: nursed; nursed; nursing nurse number42. 41. number number40. 39. nurse n. medical caretaker (especially in a hospital under the supervision of a doctor) Forms: plural: nurses nurse 43. 139 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net O object object2. O1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words object n. article, thing; goal; focus of a thought or action Forms: plural: objects objective objection4. 3. object v. to oppose; to protest Forms: objected; objected; objecting objection n. opposition; appeal; denial; protest Forms: plural: objections objective n. aim; purpose, goal Forms: plural: objectives objective adj. impartial; unbiased; existing outside of the mind obligation n. duty responsibility; indebtedness; agreement Forms: plural: obligations obligatory adj. binding; compelling; must be done; necessary observe v. to watch; to study; to monitor; to supervise; to discern Forms: observed; observed; observing obsolete adj. ancient; archaic; no longer in use; outdated; useless obtain v. to acquire; to procure; to secure; to earn; to achieve Forms: obtained; obtained; obtaining obvious adj. clear; unmistakable; apparent; evident; plain obviously adv. clearly; unmistakably; plainly; apparently obviously obvious12. 11. obtain obsolete10. 9. observe obligatory8. 7. obligation objective6. 5. occasion occasion occasion occasion14. 13. n. opportunity; occurrence, event; incident; reason; cause v. to cause; to incite; to bring to pass Forms: plural: moccasins occupation occupancy16. 15. Forms: occasioned; occasioned; occasioning occupancy n. period of residence; act of taking possession (Law); right of possession Forms: plural: occupancies occupation n. act of forcefully taking possession of an area; seizure; conquest; possession or settlement of land Forms: plural: occupations occupied adj. conquered; seized; filled; taken up; inhabited; populated occur v. to happen; to take place; to transpire; to come to mind; to suggest itself Forms: occurred; occurred; occurring offence occurrence20. 19. occur occupied18. 17. 140 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net O 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words occurrence n. happening; event; incident Forms: plural: occurrences offense offender22. 21. offence n. attack; misdeed; insult; transgression Forms: plural: offences offender n. transgressor; person who breaks the law; one who insults Forms: plural: offenders Forms: plural: offenses offense n. attack; misdeed; insult; transgression offensive n. attack; act of aggression; position of pursuit or aggression Forms: plural: offensives Forms: plural: offers offer n. suggestion; proposal of a price; tender; bid offer offensive24. 23. offer v. to suggest; to tender; to bid; to propose a price; to present Forms: offered; offered; offering Forms: plural: offices office n. chamber; bureau; incumbency; agency; authority office offer26. 25. official n. person who holds public position; authority offing n. distant part of the sea visible from the shore; remote place far from the shore; high seas Forms: plural: officials Forms: no plural offing official28. 27. offset n. outcome; compensation; counterbalance Forms: plural: offsets offset v. to compensate; to balance Forms: offset; offset; offsetting offset offset30. 29. omission n. deletion; negligence; failure; default Forms: plural: omissions omit v. to delete; to skip over; to neglect Forms: omitted; omitted; omitting omit omission32. 31. onus n. responsibility; duty; burden; impediment; blame operate v. to act; to function; to manage; to use; to activate; to perform surgery Forms: plural: onuses Forms: operated; operated; operating operate onus34. 33. operational operation36. 35. 141 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net O 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words operation n. working, performance, handling; venture, undertaking; series of actions Forms: plural: operations operational adj. working; functional; ready for use operator operation symbol Forms: plural: operators Forms: plural: opinions opinion opinion operator38. 37. n. one who activates; worker of a telephone switchboard; n. attitude; outlook; formal judgment or estimation opportune adj. appropriate; fitting; well-timed; timely; proper; expedient Forms: plural: opportunities opposite n. contrast; something contrary opposite adj. facing; across from; contrary; reverse; different; antithetical Forms: plural: opposites opposite adv. contrarily opposite prep. across from; facing opportunity n. chance; occasion; favorable time to act opposite opposite44. 43. opposite opposite42. 41. opportunity opportune40. 39. option n. choice; alternative; possibility; selection; election order n. arrangement; instruction; command; request for something Forms: plural: options Forms: plural: orders order option46. 45. order v. to command; to request something; to arrange; to manage Forms: ordered; ordered; ordering Forms: plural: ordinaries ordinary n. ecclesiastical judge; priest ordinary order48. 47. ordinary adj. regular; common organize v. to arrange; to order; to systematize; to set up; to unite; to structure Forms: organized; organized; organizing original origin52. 51. organize ordinary50. 49. 142 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net O 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words origin n. source; beginning; birth; parentage; nationality Forms: plural: origins originality original54. 53. original n. source from which something arises; prototype; model Forms: plural: originals original adj. first; primary; innovative; creative; novel originality n. state of not being a derivative of anything else Forms: plural: originalities originally adv. at first; in the first place; in a unique manner originate v. to begin; to be created; to result from; to develop; to be produced Forms: originated; originated; originating ostensibly adv. apparently; seemingly; to all appearances ostentatious adj. showy; pretentious; bombastic; pompous; garish ostentatious ostensibly58. 57. originate originally56. 55. ought v. to need to; must; to be obligated Forms: modal verb outdoor adj. of nature outlet n. exit; electrical source for connecting appliances; store; shop; joint Forms: plural: outlets output n. yield; product; manufacture; information sent out from a computer Forms: plural: outputs Forms: no plural outside n. external part or surface of something outbound adj. leaving; sailing; traveling to another country outside output64. 63. outlet outdoor62. 61. outbound ought60. 59. outside outside outside outside66. 65. adj. external; of the outdoors; from the outdoors; maximal adv. out of doors outside prep. besides; aside from overcome overall70. 69. outstanding outside68. 67. outstanding adj. excellent; conspicuous; prominent; due 143 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net O 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words overall a bib and shoulder straps) Forms: plural: overalls overhead overdraft72. 71. overcome n. work clothing consisting of denim trousers (usually with v. to subdue; to solve Forms: overcame; overcame; overcoming overdraft n. limit to which money may be withdrawn from the bank on credit Forms: plural: overdrafts overhead n. general expenses; manufacturing and business expenses Forms: no plural overhead adj. of general expenses; general overhead adv. from above; above; in the sky overhead overhead74. 73. overlap n. something that is superimposed Forms: plural: overlaps overlap v. to cover a part of; to have something in common Forms: overlapped; overlapped; overlapping overlap overlap76. 75. overlook v. to inspect; to supervise; to miss; to omit; to ignore; to excuse Forms: overlooked; overlooked; overlooking overseas adv. in a place across an ocean oversee v. to supervise; to manage; to inspect Forms: oversaw; overseen; overseeing overt adj. plain; clear; visible; public; intentional; undisguised (Law) Forms: no plural overtime adv. exceeding regular working hours overview n. synopsis; general survey; introduction Forms: plural: overviews overtime n. work beyond regular working hours; pay for such work overseas adj. foreign; abroad owe overwhelm86. 85. overview overtime84. 83. overtime overt82. 81. oversee overseas80. 79. overseas overlook78. 77. 144 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net O 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words overwhelm v. to defeat; to master; to crush; to stagger; to stun; to daze Forms: overwhelmed; overwhelmed; overwhelming own own88. 87. owe v. to be indebted to; to be under obligation to pay or repay Forms: owed; owed; owing own v. to be in possession of; to belong to; to confess own adj. belonging to oneself or itself (mine, yours, his, etc.); self; by oneself Forms: owned; owned; owning owner n. proprietor Forms: plural: owners ownership n. legal right of possession Forms: plural: ownerships ownership owner90. 89. 145 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P PR PIN2. P1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words PIN abbr. set of numbers which identifies a person PR abbr. actions of promoting goodwill and distributing information for a company or organization Forms: personal identification number Ph.D. PTO4. 3. Forms: public relations PTO abbr. requesting to view or read the opposite side of a page or document Forms: please turn over Ph.D. abbr. graduate with a doctorate; graduate of a doctoral program; university degree; title Forms: Doctor of Philosophy p.m. abbr. between noon and midnight; in the afternoon; after the hour of 12:00 noon Forms: post meridiem (pm, P.M., PM) package n. bundle; parcel; container for storage or transportation; inseparable combination of items Forms: plural: packages package p.m.6. 5. package unit Forms: packaged; packaged; packaging pad stacked together and connected on one side Forms: plural: pads pad package8. 7. v. to wrap; to combine things together as one inseparable n. piece of soft material which cushions; block of pages pad v. to cushion; to fill; to fill out; to walk; to go by foot Forms: padded; padded; padding page n. piece of paper; attendant; servant Forms: plural: pages page pad10. 9. page v. to call; to summon (e.g. to the telephone); to number sheets of paper in a collection Forms: paged; paged; paging paint n. colored substance applied to surfaces; layer of dried pigment on a surface Forms: plural: paints paint page12. 11. paint v. to apply color to a surface; to put makeup on; to describe something in words Forms: painted; painted; painting Forms: plural: pairs pair n. match; whole consisting of two parts; couple pair paint14. 13. pair v. to couple; to be part one of a match; to mate pallet n. straw-filled mattress; hard and simple bed; platform used to stack items during moving or storage Forms: paired; paired; pairing Forms: plural: pallets pallet pair16. 15. paper panel18. 17. 146 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words panel n. group of judges; board; band; strip; crew; staff paper n. thin sheets of fibrous material used to write on; article; essay; questionnaire Forms: plural: panels paragraph paradigm20. 19. Forms: plural: papers paradigm n. model; ideal; mold; form; example; pattern paragraph n. passage; distinct portion of text (usually begins with an indented line); section; clause Forms: plural: paradigms Forms: plural: paragraphs parameter n. variable which determines the form of a function paramount adj. superior; supreme; above all; of the highest rank; most important Forms: plural: parameters parentheses n. grouping symbols () Forms: plural: parenthesis part v. to divide; to separate; to be divided; to allocate Forms: parted; parted; parting part parentheses24. 23. paramount parameter22. 21. part adj. somewhat part n. section; piece; region; role; function; side in an agreement Forms: plural: parts part-time n. period; era; hour; rate Forms: plural: part-times participate v. to be involved; to join in Forms: participated; participated; participating participate part-time28. 27. part part26. 25. particular adj. special; unusual; detailed; precise; pedantic; strict particular n. detail; individual characteristic; item; article; specific proposition Forms: plural: particulars particularly adv. especially; specifically party v. to celebrate Forms: partied; partied; partying party party34. 33. party particularly32. 31. particular particular30. 29. 147 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words party adj. of a political group; of social gatherings party n. political group; social gathering; side of an agreement; group; gang Forms: plural: parties pass n. alleyway; narrow road between mountains; successful grade on a test Forms: plural: passes Forms: passed; passed; passing pass v. to cross; to transport; to approve pass pass36. 35. passage n. way; route; course; section; piece Forms: plural: passages passenger n. traveler; fare; person who rides or travels Forms: plural: passengers passenger passage38. 37. passport n. a document issued by a country to a citizen allowing that person to travel abroad and re-enter the home country Forms: plural: passports Forms: plural: patches patch n. area of fabric used to repair a hole; stain; bandage; lot patch passport40. 39. patch a hole Forms: patched; patched; patched Forms: plural: paths path path patch42. 41. v. to cover a hole with a piece of material; to use to cover n. track; lane; route; search route patience n. tolerance; forbearance Forms: no plural pattern n. sample; model; form; mold; decorative design Forms: plural: patterns pattern patience44. 43. pattern v. to decorate; to imitate; to mimic; to copy an example Forms: patterned; patterned; patterning pay n. salary; wages Forms: no plural pay pattern46. 45. pay be worthwhile; to be profitable Forms: paid; paid; paying payable payable pay48. 47. v. to give money for goods or to cancel debts; to settle; to adj. may be settled payroll payment50. 49. 148 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words payment n. wage; salary; compensation; bonus; punishment payroll n. financial sheet listing salaries; list of workers who receive wages and salaries Forms: plural: payments peace pd.52. 51. Forms: plural: payrolls pd. abbr. given money that was owed Forms: paid peace n. state of not being at war; silence; quietness; tranquility Forms: no plural peculiar adj. exceptional; special; strange; odd; curious peddle v. to hawk; to vend; to deal; to distribute; to sell Forms: peddled; peddled; peddling pedicure n. cosmetic foot treatment Forms: plural: pedicures penalize v. to punish Forms: penalized; penalized; penalizing penalize pedicure56. 55. peddle peculiar54. 53. penalty n. punishment; fine; punishment in the form of a financial payment Forms: plural: penalties Forms: perceived; perceived; perceiving perceive v. to feel; to sense; to distinguish; to discern; to see perceive penalty58. 57. percent n. one part of a hundred Forms: plural: percents perennial n. something that continues for many years Forms: plural: perennials perennial percent60. 59. perennial adj. lasting throughout the whole year; continuing for many years; perpetual; everlasting Forms: perfected; perfected; perfecting perfect adj. flawless; complete; undamaged perform v. to do; to carry out; to execute; to present; to arrange; to manage Forms: performed; performed; performing perfect v. to refine; to improve; to complete; to make faultless perhaps performance66. 65. perform perfect64. 63. perfect perennial62. 61. 149 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words performance n. show; presentation; execution; act; deed Forms: plural: performances perhaps adv. maybe; possibly; could be period n. punctuation mark; end; pause at end of a phrase; full sentence; age; season Forms: plural: periods Forms: plural: periodicals periodical n. magazine; journal periodical period68. 67. periodical adj. occurring at regular intervals; recurrent; cyclic; seasonal Forms: plural: perishables perishable adj. expendable; spoils rapidly; likely to spoil; mortal permanent adj. lasting; enduring; perpetual; regular; fixed; invariable perishable n. product which can rot or spoil (fruit, food etc.) permanent perishable72. 71. perishable periodical70. 69. permeate v. to enter; to penetrate; to infiltrate; to suffuse Forms: permeated; permeated; permeating permit n. license; authorization Forms: plural: permits permit permeate74. 73. permit v. to let; to enable; to allow; to authorize; to sanction perpetuate v. to eternalize; to make everlasting; to preserve from extinction Forms: permitted; permitted; permitting Forms: perpetuated; perpetuated; perpetuating perpetuate permit76. 75. persistence n. diligence; tenacity; stubbornness; continuation Forms: no plural personnel n. staff; work force; team; crew Forms: no plural perspective n. viewpoint; outlook; vista; view Forms: plural: perspectives persistent adj. tenacious; stubborn; constant; continual; diligent perspective personnel80. 79. persistent persistence78. 77. persuade v. to convince; to induce; to sway Forms: persuade; persuaded; persuading persuasion n. inducement; act of convincing Forms: plural: persuasions persuasion persuade82. 81. pertinent pertain84. 83. 150 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words pertain v. to belong to; to be connected to; to relate; to refer Forms: pertained; pertained; pertaining pertinent adj. relevant; related; appropriate; fitting pervasive adj. penetrating; infiltrating; spreading; extending; permeating Forms: no plural pharmacist n. druggist; apothecary Forms: plural: pharmacists phone v. to make a call; to ring Forms: phoned; phoned; phoning petrol n. type of fuel; gasoline phone pharmacist88. 87. petrol pervasive86. 85. photo pref. of light photo n. picture; snapshot Forms: plural: photos photograph v. to take a picture Forms: photographed; photographed; photographing photograph n. picture; snapshot; image Forms: plural: photographs photograph photograph92. 91. photo photo90. 89. photographer n. cameraman; person who takes pictures Forms: plural: photographers pick up v. to choose; to select; to pull out; to tear out; to peck Forms: picked; picked; picking up pick photographer94. 93. pick up n. hoe; tool used to spread soil; choice; selection Forms: plural: picks picture v. to photograph; to paint; to draw; to describe; to depict Forms: pictured; pictured; picturing picture up96. pick 95. picture n. photograph; drawing; painting; film; embodiment pie n. type of dessert; cake; baked dish consisting of a crust and filling Forms: plural: pictures Forms: plural: pies pie picture98. 97. piece piece100. 99. 151 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words piece v. to join parts together; to attach segments Forms: pieced; pieced; piecing pioneer pile102. 101. piece n. slice; part; segment; creation; work Forms: plural: pieces pile levee Forms: plural: piles pioneer member of a military engineering corps Forms: plural: pioneers n. heap; mound; wealth; fortune; group of buildings; dike; n. pathfinder; forerunner; person who paves the way; pioneer v. to pave the way; to create a path; to guide; to initiate; to originate Forms: pioneered; pioneered; pioneering Forms: plural: pipes pipe n. tube; trachea; flute; toot pipe pioneer104. 103. pipe v. to convey a fluid; to transport a liquid; to make a highpitched sound Forms: piped; piped; piping pitch n. relative highness or lowness of a sound; tar; asphalt; throw Forms: plural: pitches pitch pipe106. 105. pitch v. to establish; to erect; to throw; to toss Forms: pitched; pitched; pitched place n. location; position; standing; role; function Forms: plural: places place pitch108. 107. place v. to put; to lay; to lodge; to nominate; to appoint Forms: laced; placed; placing plaid n. colorful fabric with a pattern of square s and crossbars Forms: plural: plaids plain n. plateau; area of level ground; prairie; savanna Forms: plural: plains plain adj. clear; evident; simple; flat; smooth plain adv. simply; in an unembellished manner; clearly placid adj. serene; quiet; peaceful; tranquil; relaxed; calm plan plan116. 115. plain plain114. 113. plain plaid112. 111. placid place110. 109. 152 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words plan n. program; scheme; agenda; timetable; schedule plan v. to make a scheme; to plot; to design; to contrive; to think up Forms: plural: plans plane plane118. 117. Forms: planned; planned; planned plane adj. flat, level; even plane n. type of aircraft; two-dimensional surface; rank; level Forms: plural: planes plane v. to smooth wood; to make smooth; to remove rough areas Forms: planed; planed; planing Forms: plural: plants plant n. small vegetable growth; factory; equipment plant plane120. 119. plant v. to sow; to place seeds or vegetation into soil; to establish; to set Forms: planted; planted; planting plate n. flat dish for serving food; portion; covering, coating; board Forms: plural: plates plate plant122. 121. plate v. to cover with a thin layer of metal; to coat with metal Forms: plated; plated; plating plc abbr. public limited liability company in Britain Forms: public limited company plc plate124. 123. pleased adj. content; satiated; having one's desires satisfied pleasure n. enjoyment; amusement; entertainment; delight; joy Forms: plural: pleasures pleasure v. to cause someone enjoyment plug n. cork; stopper; electrical connector; block; advertisement Forms: pleasured; pleasured; pleasuring Forms: plural: plugs plug pleasure128. 127. pleasure pleased126. 125. plug v. to cap; to cork; to stop up; to block; to advertise Forms: plugged; plugged; plugging plumber n. person who works with pipe and water systems Forms: plural: plumbers plumber plug130. 129. pocket pocket132. 131. 153 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words pocket adj. small; of a pouch pocket n. pouch used to carry objects; sac; underground deposit of oil Forms: plural: pockets pocket v. to profit; to roll a ball into a hole (Billiards) Forms: pocketed; pocketed; pocketing point n. spot; tip; essence; gist; matter Forms: plural: points point pocket134. 133. point v. to indicate; to emphasize; to sharpen; to direct pointer n. indicator; something used to point; hand on a clock; clue; advice Forms: pointed; pointed; pointing Forms: plural: pointers pointer point136. 135. policy n. course or method of action; guidelines; position; standpoint; insurance contract Forms: plural: policies poll n. voting, electing; counting of votes; number of votes; referendum Forms: plural: polls Forms: polled; polled; polling poll v. to vote; to elect; to count votes; to make a survey polite adj. courteous; having good manners; gentle; genial; kind poll poll140. 139. polite policy138. 137. pollution n. contamination; dirtying; soiling; spoiling; destruction Forms: plural: pollutions ponder v. to reflect; to think; to consider; to meditate Forms: pondered; pondered; pondering ponder pollution142. 141. population n. total number of people living in an area portable adj. mobile; movable; can be transported from one place to another Forms: plural: populations portfolio n. briefcase; attache case; list of securities and stocks Forms: plural: portfolios pose n. stance Forms: plural: poses pose portfolio146. 145. portable population144. 143. position pose148. 147. 154 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words pose v. to stance Forms: posed; posed; posing possess position150. 149. position n. viewpoint, opinion; siting; locus; location; place; job Forms: plural: positions position v. to erect; to set; to put; to place possess v. to control; to dominate; to hold; to own; to have as property Forms: positioned; positioned; positioned Forms: possessed; possessed; possessing possession n. custody; property; asset; control; ownership Forms: plural: possessions possibility n. probability; feasibility; chance; likelihood Forms: plural: possibilities possibility possession152. 151. possible adj. could be; might be; may be post pref. after; later; subsequent to post possible154. 153. post n. mail; column; opinion; role; job placement Forms: plural: posts post v. to assign to a duty; to station; to publicize; to advertise Forms: posted; posted; posting post post156. 155. postage n. fee for sending letters or packages by mail Forms: no plural posting n. message sent to a newsgroup or mailing list (Internet) Forms: plural: postings posting postage158. 157. postmaster n. mail manager, person responsible for managing electronic mail on a network (Computers) Forms: plural: postmasters postpone v. to put off to a later time; to delay; to defer; to put off until later; to stay Forms: postponed; postponed; postponing postpone postmaster160. 159. posture n. viewpoint; stance; condition; state; mood; attitude Forms: plural: postures posture v. to pretend; to feign Forms: postured; postured; posturing posture posture162. 161. potency n. power; strength; force; capacity to be Forms: plural: potencies potential n. possibility; ability; capability of being Forms: plural: potentials potential potency164. 163. pounce potential166. 165. 155 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words potential adj. possible; capable of becoming; able to be pounce n. act of suddenly swooping down and grabbing; sudden assault or attack Forms: plural: pounces pounce v. to fall on; to storm; to invade; to attack; to seize; to assault Forms: pounced; pounced; pouncing practical adj. feasible; workable; applicable; useful; efficacious practice v. to exercise; to train; to drill Forms: practiced; practiced; practicing practice n. customary action; habit; drill; training exercise Forms: plural: practices precede v. to go before; to be in front; to be ahead of; to predate Forms: preceded; preceded; preceding powerful adj. exerting great force; effective; potent; producing the desired effect; influential precede practice172. 171. practice practical170. 169. powerful pounce168. 167. precise adj. exact; not more and not less; meticulous; strict precisely adv. exactly; accurately; definitely; certainly; surely precisely precise174. 173. precondition v. to train in advance Forms: preconditioned; preconditioned; preconditioning precondition n. advance stipulation; preliminary terms Forms: plural: preconditions precondition precondition176. 175. predict v. to prophesy; to foretell; to announce in advance Forms: predict; predict; predicting predisposition n. sensitivity; susceptibility (to disease, etc.) Forms: plural: predispositions predominate v. to control to rule over; to be superior Forms: predominated; predominated; predominating predictable adj. can be prophesied; can be foretold predominate predisposition180. 179. predictable predict178. 177. preempt v. to occupy a place; to take a place; to obtain at an advance opportunity Forms: preempted; preempted; preempting Forms: prefaced; prefaced; prefacing preface v. to use as an introduction; to use as a foreword preface preempt182. 181. prefer preface184. 183. 156 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words preface n. introduction; foreword; opening statement Forms: plural: prefaces prejudice preference186. 185. prefer v. to hold superior; to appoint; to nominate; to like better Forms: preferred; preferred; preferring preference n. favor; liking; fondness; priority; superior status prejudice v. to express a preconceived opinion; to express one's biases Forms: plural: preferences Forms: prejudiced; prejudiced; prejudicing prejudice n. bias; sentence passed before proper examination of the circumstances Forms: plural: prejudices premises n. property; site; area; grounds; building with the grounds belonging to it Forms: no plural premises prejudice188. 187. premium for insurance; reward Forms: plural: premia or premiums prepare v. to make ready; to get oneself ready; to put into the proper condition Forms: prepared; prepared; preparing Forms: plural: prerogatives prerogative n. right; special privilege prepaid payment prepaid premium190. 189. n. supplementary charge; additional charge; amount paid adj. remunerated ahead of time; settled beforehand via prerogative prepare192. 191. prescription n. written order for a medication; instruction; directive; order; command Forms: plural: prescriptions Forms: presented; presented; presenting present v. to display; to demonstrate; to bestow; to grant present prescription194. 193. present pertaining to the current times present without compensation Forms: plural: presents present present196. 195. adj. existent; in attendance; on hand; of the current times; n. gift; offering; something that is given to another person preserve preserve198. 197. 157 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words preserve n. area of land set aside to protect natural resources and wildlife Forms: plural: preserves press president200. 199. preserve v. to guard; to keep safe; to keep; to defend; to protect Forms: preserved; preserved; preserving president n. head; leader; chairman; chief press v. to push; to iron; to remove creases or wrinkles; to confiscate for public or government use Forms: plural: presidents Forms: pressed; pressed; pressing press printing Forms: plural: presses Forms: pressured; pressured; pressuring pressure pressure press202. 201. n. journals and newspapers collectively; act or process of v. to apply force or weight; to push; to stress pressure encumbrance Forms: plural: pressures presume to permit oneself Forms: presumed; presumed; presuming presume pressure204. 203. n. exertion of force; application of weight; weight; burden; v. to take for granted; to dare; to venture; to take liberties; pretend v. to impersonate; to act in a role; to claim; to assert Forms: pretended; pretended; pretending pretense v. to feign; to impersonate; to put on a false show Forms: pretensed; pretensed; pretensing pretense n. feigning; impersonation; false show; claim; assertion Forms: plural: pretenses pretend adj. simulated; feigned; make-believe pretense pretense208. 207. pretend pretend206. 205. pretentious adj. impersonating; putting on a false appearance; feigning; arrogant; haughty prevail v. to win; to succeed; to overcome; to surpass; to prove superior Forms: prevailed; prevailed; prevailing prevalent adj. common; widespread; current pretty adv. moderately; quite; rather; to some extent preventive prevent214. 213. prevalent prevail212. 211. pretty pretentious210. 209. 158 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words prevent hinder Forms: prevented; prevented; preventing previous preventive216. 215. preventive situation Forms: plural: preventives v. to cause not to happen; to avert; to delay; to impede; to n. safeguard; something used to avert an unwanted preventive adj. averting; avoiding; delaying; inhibiting previous adj. earlier; antecedent; hasty; premature previously adv. before; at an earlier time; in the past; antecedently price n. cost; value; worth; rate; measure Forms: plural: prices price v. to give a cost to something priceless adj. invaluable; beyond any expressible value; very expensive Forms: priced; priced; pricing primarily adv. chiefly; principally; mainly; initially prime adj. major; chief; select; of the highest quality; excellent prime primarily222. 221. priceless price220. 219. price previously218. 217. prime n. state of perfection; state of highest quality Forms: plural: primes principal n. school director; school master; capital sum (Finance) principle n. doctrine; tenet; precept; fundamental law; primary law on which other laws are based Forms: plural: principals Forms: plural: principles principal adj. chief; head; leading; primary; main principle principal226. 225. principal prime224. 223. printer n. computer peripheral used for exporting documents to paper Forms: plural: printers prior adj. earlier; antecedent; former prioritize prior230. 229. prior printer228. 227. 159 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words prior n. officer of a monastery; high-ranking member of a religious order Forms: plural: priors privacy priority232. 231. prioritize v. to organize according to importance Forms: prioritized; prioritized; prioritizing priority n. preference; precedence; higher rank; privileged position; seniority Forms: plural: priorities Forms: plural: privacies privacy n. seclusion; solitude; reclusion; secrecy; confidentiality private adj. intimate; for or pertaining to a small group of people; personal; of an individual Forms: plural: privates privatize v. to transfer control from governmental to individual powers Forms: privatized; privatized; privatizing privilege v. to grant special rights; to give special advantages or benefits Forms: privileged; privileged; privileging private n. soldier of the three lowest military ranks privilege privatize236. 235. private private234. 233. privilege n. special individual right not enjoyed by others; benefit; advantage Forms: plural: privileges prize v. to appreciate; to esteem; to respect; to appraise; to assess worth Forms: prized; prized; prizing prize privilege238. 237. prize adj. valuable; unique; outstanding; award-winning probably adv. almost certainly; very likely; apparently; in all likelihood procedure n. routine; protocol; course of action; subroutine; sequence of instructions (Computers) Forms: plural: procedures proceed v. to continue; to carry on; to advance; to progress; to move forward Forms: proceeded; proceeded; proceeding proceed procedure242. 241. probably prize240. 239. process v. to treat; to adapt; to prepare; to make ready Forms: processed; processed; processing process n. routine; course of action; advance; summons to court Forms: plural: processes process process244. 243. procurement procure246. 245. 160 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words procure v. to obtain; to acquire; to get; to buy; to purchase Forms: procured; procured; procuring production product248. 247. procurement n. purchase; sale; acquisition Forms: plural: procurements product n. result of manufacturing; goods; merchandise Forms: plural: products production n. manufacture; assembly; output; yield Forms: plural: productions productivity n. a measurement of output per hours worked; creativeness; fruitfulness; prolificness Forms: no plural Forms: plural: professions profession n. vocation; skilled occupation; declaration; proclamation profession productivity250. 249. professional adj. of a skilled occupation; working in one of the skilled occupations Forms: plural: professionals proficiency n. expertise; state of having expert skills; skillfulness; adeptness; masterfulness Forms: no plural profit v. to earn income; to make financial gains; to be of service; to be beneficial Forms: profited; profited; profiting professional n. person who works in a skilled occupation; specialist profit proficiency254. 253. professional professional252. 251. profit n. earnings; financial gain; benefit; advantage; privilege profitable adj. lucrative; paying; rewarding; beneficial; producing income Forms: plural: profits profuse adj. plentiful; abundant; generous; extravagant; wasteful profusion n. plentifulness; abundance; numerousness; plurality Forms: no plural program v. to schedule; to plan; to write a system of operating instructions for a computer Forms: programmed; programmed; programming Forms: plural: programs program n. schedule; agenda; written order of events program program260. 259. profusion profuse258. 257. profitable profit256. 255. progress programmer262. 261. 161 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words programmer n. person who creates sets of instructions for a computer or other device Forms: plural: programmers prohibit progress264. 263. progress v. to advance; to move forward; to gain Forms: progressed; progressed; progressing progress n. headway; forward movement; development; advancement Forms: no plural prohibit v. to outlaw; to forbid by law; to interdict; to ban; to prevent Forms: prohibited; prohibited; prohibiting project v. to plan; to scheme; to send; to dispatch; to throw Forms: projected; projected; projecting project n. plan; scheme; program; task; assignment; activity Forms: plural: projects project project266. 265. proliferate v. to reproduce quickly; to multiply rapidly; to thrive; to grow quickly Forms: proliferated; proliferated; proliferating Forms: plural: proliferations proliferation n. rapid multiplication; rapid reproduction; prosperity proliferation proliferate268. 267. prolific adj. fruitful; productive; abundant; plentiful; multiplying; producing fruit Forms: prolonged; prolonged; prolonging promise v. to pledge; to give one's word; to vow; to commit oneself to a certain course of action Forms: promised; promised; promising promise n. pledge; vow; declaration of intention; source of hope; basis for expectations Forms: plural: promises prolong v. to extend; to lengthen promise promise272. 271. prolong prolific270. 269. promote v. to further; to encourage sales; to aid; to help; to assist promotional adj. of publicizing; of advancement; of encouragement; of fostering; of an enterprise Forms: promoted; promoted; promoting proof adj. resistant; invulnerable; impervious; sealed; durable proof v. to make resistant; to make impervious; to edit Forms: proofed; proofed; proofing proper propensity278. 277. proof proof276. 275. promotional promote274. 273. 162 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words propensity n. inclination; tendency; disposition; aptitude Forms: plural: propensities proper adj. correct; suitable; just; complete property n. possessions; belongings; estate; assets; ownership Forms: plural: properties proposal n. suggestion; tender; plan; offer of marriage Forms: plural: proposals proposal property280. 279. propose v. to suggest; to recommend; to tender; to make an offer of marriage Forms: proposed; proposed; proposing Forms: plural: propositions proposition n. offer; plan; theory; problem proposition propose282. 281. prosaic adj. common; regular; boring; tedious; dull prospect v. to search for valuable materials (such as gold, oil, etc.) Forms: prospected; prospected; prospecting prospect n. chance; probability of advancement or success; hope; promise Forms: plural: prospects prospectus n. a document giving details about an offering of securities investment for sale to the public Forms: plural: prospectuses prospectus prospect286. 285. prospect prosaic284. 283. protect v. to defend; to save from harm; to watch over; to guard Forms: protected; protected; protecting protection n. defense; shelter; safety Forms: plural: protections protection protect288. 287. protocol n. method of dealing with a certain subject; draft of a treaty Forms: plural: protocols prove v. to substantiate with evidence; to demonstrate; to show clearly Forms: proved; proved; proving Forms: provided; provided; providing provide v. to supply; to grant; to set; to offer proud adj. arrogant; haughty; magnificent; impressive provide prove292. 291. proud protocol290. 289. provision provision294. 293. 163 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words provision v. to supply with stock; to equip with supplies (esp. food) Forms: provisioned; provisioned; provisioning publication proximity296. 295. provision n. supply; stock; measure; means; condition; stipulation Forms: plural: provisions proximity n. adjacency; nearness; closeness; vicinity publication n. process of producing and distributing printed material; act of advertising Forms: no plural Forms: plural: publications publicize v. to advertise; to bring to the attention of a large audience Forms: publicized; publicized; publicizing Forms: published; published; publishing publish v. to produce and distribute printed material; to advertise publish publicize298. 297. publisher n. person or company that produces and distributes printed material Forms: plural: publishers Forms: pulled out; pulled out; pulling out pull out v. to remove; to withdraw; to abandon; to exit; to depart out pull publisher300. 299. purchase n. something which has been bought; act of buying purchase v. to buy; to acquire in exchange for money; to procure; to obtain Forms: plural: purchases Forms: purchased; purchased; purchasing purchase purchase302. 301. purpose n. goal; aim; intention; objective Forms: plural: purposes purpose v. to intend; to plan; to design; to aim Forms: purposed; purposed; purposing purpose purpose304. 303. pursue v. to chase after; to follow; to aspire to; to strive for Forms: pursued; pursued; pursuing pursuit n. chase; quest; search; occupation; pastime Forms: plural: pursuits pursuit pursue306. 305. pushy adj. controlling; aggressive; extremely self-assertive; bossy Forms: plural: pushies pushy n. cat (Slang); feline off put in310. put 309. pushy pushy308. 307. 164 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net P 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words put in v. to make an application; to enter; to let something or someone enter Forms: put in; put in; putting in puzzle with312. up put 311. put off v. to postpone; to disgust; to repulse; to deter Forms: put off; put off; putting off put up with v. to tolerate; to be patient Forms: put up with; put up with; putting up with puzzle n. enigma; riddle; game; jigsaw Forms: plural: puzzles puzzle v. to mystify; to baffle; to confound; to confuse; to perplex Forms: puzzled; puzzled; puzzling puzzle 313. 165 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net Q qualify qualification2. Q1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words qualification n. fitness; suitability; limitation; diploma or certificate stating one's abilities Forms: plural: qualifications quality quality4. 3. qualify v. to train; to certify; to meet the minimum standards; to moderate; to modify Forms: qualified; qualified; qualifying quality n. degree of excellence; characteristic; attribute; character; excellence Forms: plural: qualities quantity n. amount; extent; measure; degree; size; magnitude quarter n. one fourth; neighborhood; coin worth 25 cents; period of three months; district Forms: plural: quantities Forms: plural: quarters quality adj. excellent; having superior characteristics; fine quarter quantity6. 5. quarter adj. being one fourth; having four equal parts quarterly adj. occurring every three months; taking place four times a year quarterly adv. four times a year; once every three months queues v. to stand in line; to make a row Forms: queued; queued; queuing queues n. line; file (British); row; braid; plait quiet adj. silent; noiseless; peaceful; tranquil; still; lacking activity Forms: plural: queues quiet speechlessness Forms: no plural quotation reference; commercial offer; statement of price Forms: plural: quotations quotation quiet14. 13. quiet queues12. 11. queues quarterly10. 9. quarterly quarter8. 7. n. silence; noiselessness; stillness; tranquility; muteness; n. citation; passage taken from another source; quote v. to cite; to state a price; to offer a price Forms: quoted; quoted; quoting quote n. citation; commercial offer Forms: plural: quotes quote quote16. 15. 166 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R ROI R&D2. R1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words R&D abbr. department in a company that develops new products Forms: research and development railroad railroad4. 3. ROI abbr. method of measuring the profitability of a company (derived by dividing the net income by total assets) Forms: return on investment railroad v. to transport via locomotive; to convey by train Forms: railroaded; railroaded; railroading railroad n. path for a train made of parallel metal tracks Forms: plural: railroads raise v. to elevate; to lift; to excite; to arouse; to cause Forms: raised; raised; raising raise n. increase in salary; wage increase Forms: plural: raises raise raise6. 5. ranches n. farm with large pasture land for raising livestock Forms: plural: ranches range v. to determine the scope of a target; to extend; to stretch; to vary Forms: ranged; ranged; ranging Forms: plural: ranges range n. pasture; scope; extent; field; domain; assortment randomly adv. accidentally; by chance range range10. 9. randomly ranches8. 7. rank adj. giving off a foul odor; fertile; productive; fruitful; growing vigorously Forms: ranked; ranked; ranking rapidly adv. quickly; fast; swiftly rarely adv. infrequently; not often; seldom rank v. to arrange in a line; to grade; to classify rarely rapidly14. 13. rank rank12. 11. rate classify; to sort Forms: rated; rated; rating Forms: plural: rates rate rate rate16. 15. v. to assess; to appraise; to determine value; to grade; to n. price; cost; speed; pace; tax rather adv. very quite; to a degree; somewhat; slightly; a bit; might as well rational adj. logical; reasonable; intelligent; prudent; expressible as a whole number (Mathematics) rational rather18. 17. reach reach20. 19. 167 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words reach v. to arrive; to obtain; to procure; to extend the arm outward Forms: reached; reached; reaching readiness readership22. 21. reach n. distance that an arm can extend Forms: plural: reaches readership n. total number of people who subscribe to a particular publication Forms: plural: readerships Forms: no plural readiness n. preparedness; willingness; promptness; quickness ready adj. prepared; set; eager; willing; quick; fast realization n. accomplishment; fulfillment Forms: plural: realizations realize v. to understand; to comprehend; to accomplish; to convert into cash; to liquidate Forms: realized; realized; realizing rear n. back end; hindmost unit of an army (or fleet, etc.) Forms: plural: rears reason v. to think; to consider logically; to argue; to claim Forms: reasoned; reasoned; reasoning rear adj. back; hind reason rear28. 27. rear realize26. 25. realization ready24. 23. reason n. cause; basis for action; intelligence; sense reasonable adj. rational; logical; intelligent; wise; plausible; likely; credible Forms: plural: reasons rebound v. to spring back Forms: rebounded; rebounded; rebounding rebound n. backlash Forms: plural: rebounds rebound rebound32. 31. reasonable reason30. 29. rebuild v. to reconstruct; to erect again Forms: rebuilt; rebuilt; rebuilding recant v. to give up; to renounce; to deny; to disavow; to retract Forms: recanted; recanted; recanting recant rebuild34. 33. receipt recap36. 35. 168 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words recap v. to summarize; to review with a short summary Forms: recapped; recapped; recapping receive receipt38. 37. receipt v. to write a statement of purchases; to make a bill of sale Forms: receipted; receipted; receipting receipt n. bill of sale; written statement of purchases receive v. to get; to accept; to absorb; to take in; to host; to accommodate Forms: plural: receipts Forms: received; received; receiving recent adj. new; fresh; late; of late times reception n. acceptance; event in which guests are formally welcomed by their host; check-in Forms: plural: receptions receptionist n. person who greets visitors or clients on the telephone and upon their arrival Forms: plural: receptionists recession n. a significant decline in general economic activity extending over a period of time Forms: plural: recessions recession receptionist42. 41. reception recent40. 39. recipient n. person who accepts; person who takes or gets Forms: plural: recipients reclaim v. to demand the return of property; to repossess Forms: reclaimed; reclaimed; reclaiming reclaim recipient44. 43. recognition n. acknowledgment; identification Forms: plural: recognitions recognize v. to identify; to acknowledge; to know; to admit recommend v. to advocate; to endorse; to speak well of; to advise; to suggest Forms: recognized; recognized; recognizing Forms: recommended; recommended; recommending recognizable adj. identifiable; determinable; able to be distinguished recommend recognize48. 47. recognizable recognition46. 45. recommendation advice Forms: plural: recommendations Forms: reconsidered; reconsidered; reconsidering reconsider reconsider recommendation50. 49. n. endorsement; approval; letter of reference; suggestion; v. to contemplate again record record52. 51. 169 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words record adj. comprising the best result ever attained record n. list; evidence; best result ever attained; list of events or actions Forms: plural: records recover v. to get well; to get back; to regain; to obtain again Forms: recovered; recovered; recovering recovery n. recuperation; getting well; return Forms: plural: recoveries recovery recover54. 53. recruit v. to enlist or draft new members; to gain; to obtain; to procure Forms: recruited; recruited; recruiting Forms: plural: recruits recruit n. new member of a group; new employee recruit recruit56. 55. recruitment n. act of enlisting or drafting new members Forms: plural: recruitments rectangle n. parallelogram Forms: plural: rectangles rectangle recruitment58. 57. rectify v. to fix; to repair; to correct; to calibrate; to adjust Forms: rectified; rectified; rectifying reduce v. to lessen; to diminish; to decrease Forms: reduced; reduced; reducing reduce rectify60. 59. refer to call attention to Forms: referred; referred; referring reference to another source of information (in a book, journal, etc.) Forms: referenced; referenced; referencing reference refer62. 61. v. to send; to direct; to ascribe to; to relate to; to apply to; v. to add a footnote; to place a note that directs readers reference n. comment; remark; ascription; mention; regard reflect v. to mirror; to send back energy from a surface; to cause to return; to express Forms: plural: references Forms: reflected; reflected; reflecting reflect reference64. 63. reflection energy from a surface; idea; concept Forms: plural: reflections refund again Forms: refunded; refunded; refunding refund reflection66. 65. n. act of casting back a mirror image; act of sending back v. to return money; to reimburse; to repay; to finance refurbish refund68. 67. 170 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words refund n. return of money; repayment; reimbursement refurbish v. to make new again; to renovate; to restore to good condition Forms: plural: refunds refuse refusal70. 69. Forms: refurbished; refurbished; refurbishing refusal n. denial; rejection Forms: plural: refusals refuse v. to decline; to deny; to reject Forms: refused; refused; refusing refuse n. garbage; trash; waste regard v. to look at; to concern; to relate to; to esteem; to appreciate; to consider Forms: plural: refuses Forms: regarded; regarded; regarding regard refuse72. 71. regard n. esteem; respect; thought; consideration; look; glance Forms: plural: regards regardless adj. inattentive; unmindful regardless adv. without consideration for possible problems; anyway; in any case region sphere Forms: plural: regions Forms: registered; registered; registering registering regarding prep. with relation to registering region78. 77. regardless regardless76. 75. regarding regard74. 73. n. area; territory; domain; field; area of activity or interest; v. to record; to enroll; to have an effect; to have influence registering n. list; record; regulator; gauge regress v. to move backward; to go back; to return to a previous condition Forms: plural: registers Forms: regressed; regressed; regressing regress registering80. 79. regular adj. occurring at fixed intervals; normal; usual; ordinary; common Forms: plural: regulars regular n. frequent customer; repeat customer regulate regularly84. 83. regular regular82. 81. 171 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words regularly customarily regulate level or condition Forms: regulated; regulated; regulating adv. at fixed intervals; at evenly-spaced intervals; usually; v. to control; to govern; to manage; to adjust to a specific regulations n. statute; law; act of controlling; management; direction Forms: plural: regulations rehearsal n. practice session for a performance Forms: plural: rehearsals rehearsal regulations86. 85. rehearse v. to drill; to practice an action repeatedly in order to perfect it Forms: rehearsed; rehearsed; rehearsing reimburse v. to repay; to refund; to compensate for a loss; to repay for an expense Forms: reimbursed; reimbursed; reimbursing reimburse rehearse88. 87. reimbursement n. act of paying back; repayment; compensation for a loss; repayment for an expense Forms: plural: reimbursements Forms: reinforced; reinforced; reinforcing reinforce v. to strengthen; to fortify; to support; to increase reinforce reimbursement90. 89. reinforcement n. act of strengthening; reward or punishment designed to encourage or discourage a particular response Forms: plural: reinforcements Forms: reiterated; reiterated; reiterating reiterate v. to repeat; to say again; to restate reiterate reinforcement92. 91. reject v. to decline; to deny; to turn down reject n. something or someone that does not match up to standards; object of lower quality; outcast Forms: rejected; rejected; rejecting Forms: plural: rejects reject reject94. 93. relate v. to narrate; to tell; to make a connection between; to have a good relationship with Forms: related; related; relating relation n. narration; act of telling; family member; connection; association Forms: plural: relations relation relate96. 95. release relationship98. 97. 172 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words relationship n. connection; association; closeness release v. to set free; to emancipate; to make available to the general public; to surrender Forms: plural: relationships relevant release100. 99. Forms: released; released; releasing release n. freedom; liberation; newly distributed film (or record, book, etc.); statement provided to the media Forms: plural: releases reliable adj. credible; trustworthy; dependable relief n. easement; alleviation; liberation; aid; assistance Forms: plural: reliefs relinquish v. to cede; to surrender; to give up; to forsake; to abandon Forms: relinquished; relinquished; relinquishing relocate v. to move to a different apartment; to move to a different place Forms: relocated; relocated; relocating relevant adj. pertinent; related; connected to the current subject relocate relinquish104. 103. relief reliable102. 101. rely v. to depend on; to trust in Forms: relied; relied; relying remain v. to stay; to abide; to continue; to go on Forms: remained; remained; remaining remain rely106. 105. remark v. to notice; to observe; to comment; to state; to say Forms: remarked; remarked; remarking remark n. comment; observation; notice Forms: plural: remarks remark remark108. 107. remarkable adj. striking; noteworthy; extraordinary; exceptional remember v. to recall to the mind; to retain in one's mind; to have a recollection Forms: remembered; remembered; remembering remind v. to cause to remember Forms: reminded; reminded; reminding remit v. to forgive; to absolve; to release; to discharge Forms: remitted; remitted; remitting remit remind112. 111. remember remarkable110. 109. remote remit114. 113. 173 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words remit n. act of forgiving; discharging; dispatching Forms: plural: remits remote adj. distant; located far away; secluded; isolated; aloof removal n. act of shedding; act of taking away; elimination; ejection; dismissal Forms: plural: removals remove v. to take off; to shed; to take away; to eliminate; to get rid of Forms: removed; removed; removing remove removal116. 115. remove grade Forms: plural: removes Forms: rendered; rendered; rendering render render remove118. 117. n. degree of difference; promotion of a student to a higher v. to give; to submit; to transform; to represent; to depict renew v. to restore to good condition; to restart; to resume; to refresh Forms: renewed; renewed; renewing renovation n. act of repairing; renewal; act of restoring to good condition Forms: plural: renovations renovation renew120. 119. renowned adj. famous; prominent rent v. to let; to allow someone to use property in return for regular payments; to hire Forms: rented; rented; renting rent rental rental rent124. 123. rent renowned122. 121. n. money paid for the use of property; rip; tear; laceration adj. available to lease or rent Forms: plural: rents rental n. money paid for the use of property; property that is leased; act of leasing Forms: plural: rentals repeat repair128. 127. repair rental126. 125. repair v. to fix; to mend; to correct a problem or malfunction Forms: repaired; repaired; repairing repair n. act of fixing; correction; act of mending Forms: plural: repairs repeat adj. done over again repetition repeat130. 129. 174 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words repeat n. act of redoing something Forms: plural: repeats replacement replace132. 131. repetition n. reiteration; act of redoing something Forms: plural: repetitions replace v. to substitute for; to return something to a particular position or location Forms: replaced; replaced; replacing Forms: plural: replacements replacement n. substitution; substitute replay v. to rebroadcast Forms: replayed; replayed; replaying replay n. rematch; repetition Forms: plural: replays replay replay134. 133. reply v. to answer; to respond Forms: replied; replied; replying reply n. answer; response Forms: plural: replies reply reply136. 135. repo n. agreement in which the seller of securities agrees to buy them back at a specified time and price Forms: plural: repos Forms: plural: reports report n. detailed account of an occurrence or situation report repo138. 137. report situation; inform Forms: reported; reported; reporting represent organization; to symbolize Forms: represented; represented; representing represent report140. 139. v. to provide a detailed statement about an occurrence or v. to act as an agent on behalf of a person or representative n. delegate; agent; person who acts on behalf of another person or organization Forms: plural: representatives reprove v. to accuse; to admonish Forms: reproved; reproved; reproving reputation n. regard; esteem; renown Forms: plural: reputations representative adj. typical; characteristic; acting on behalf of another person or organization reputation reprove144. 143. representative representative142. 141. request request146. 145. 175 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words request n. petition; instance of asking for something; something that is asked for; object of a petition Forms: plural: requests requirement require148. 147. request v. to ask for; to petition for Forms: requested; requested; requesting require v. to demand; to claim; to need; to call for; to order; to command Forms: required; required; requiring requirement n. something that is demanded; necessity; something that is needed Forms: plural: requirements reschedule v. to set a new time and date rescue n. deliverance; act of saving from danger or injury; act of freeing from risk Forms: rescheduled; rescheduled; rescheduling Forms: plural: rescues rescue reschedule150. 149. rescue v. to save from harm; to deliver from danger; to free from risk Forms: rescued; rescued; rescuing research n. comprehensive inquiry; extensive investigation of a subject Forms: plural: researches research rescue152. 151. research v. to perform a thorough investigation; to study a subject closely Forms: researched; researched; researching resemble v. to be similar to; to be akin to; to look like; to have a similar appearance to Forms: resembled; resembled; resembling resemble research154. 153. reservation n. act of ordering in advance (hotel room, airline ticket, etc.) Forms: plural: reservations reserve requirement n. minimum amount of money and liquid assets set by the central banking system of the U.S. Forms: plural: reserve requirements requirement reserve reservation156. 155. residence n. headquarters of a business; dwelling place; abode; home; domicile Forms: plural: residences resident adj. staying in a particular place; not migratory; intrinsic; existing residential resident160. 159. resident residence158. 157. 176 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words resident n. inhabitant; one who lives in a particular location Forms: plural: residents residential adj. intended for inhabitation; occupied with homes residual adj. enduring; lasting; continuing; leftover; remaining resign v. to quit an office or position; to relinquish; to give up; to abdicate Forms: resigned; resigned; resigning resignation n. act of quitting a position; letter stating that one quits a position; relinquishment Forms: plural: resignations resilience n. elasticity; cheerfulness; quality of quickly recovering from sadness or failure; buoyancy Forms: no plural resilience resignation164. 163. resign residual162. 161. resist v. to oppose; to fight against; to challenge; to withstand Forms: resisted; resisted; resisting resist n. protective coating Forms: plural: resists resist resist166. 165. resistance n. opposition; act of fighting against; act of withstanding the effects of Forms: plural: resistances resolve v. to determine; to decide; to separate into constituent parts Forms: resolved; resolved; resolving Forms: plural: resolves resolve n. firm decision; ruling; decisiveness; determination resolute adj. determined; firm; steadfast resolve resolve170. 169. resolute resistance168. 167. resonate v. to echo resource n. supply; stock; means of accomplishing a goal; expedient Forms: resonated; resonated; resonating Forms: plural: resources resource resonate172. 171. respect v. to honor; to admire; to esteem; to hold in high regard Forms: respected; respected; respecting respect n. honor; esteem; high regard; consideration; attention Forms: no plural respect respect174. 173. response respond176. 175. 177 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words respond v. to answer; to reply; to react Forms: responded; responded; responding responsive responsible178. 177. response n. reply; answer; reaction Forms: plural: responses responsible adj. dependable; reliable; accountable; liable responsive adj. answering; reacting (esp. positively or sympathetically) restriction n. limitation; limit resume v. to recommence; to begin again; to retake; to take back; to continue Forms: plural: restrictions Forms: resumed; resumed; resuming resume restriction180. 179. resume n. summary; synopsis; abstract; CV; curriculum vitae retail adj. pertaining to the sale of goods to final consumers; of the sale of merchandise to end users Forms: plural: resumes retail n. sale of products to final consumers; sale of goods to end users Forms: plural: retails Forms: plural: retailers retailer n. person or business that sells goods to final consumers retailer retail184. 183. retail resume182. 181. reticent adj. keeping quiet; reserved; showing self-restraint retire v. to withdraw from a position (usually due to old age); go into seclusion; to withdraw Forms: retired; retired; retiring retirement n. withdrawal from one's job or occupation retrieval n. act of bringing back; restoration; act of finding information and sending it to the user as output Forms: plural: retirements Forms: plural: retrievals retrieval retirement188. 187. retire reticent186. 185. retrieve v. to recover; to regain; to bring back; to fetch; to rescue return adj. reciprocal; done in response to a previous action; repeated; recurring Forms: retrieved; retrieved; retrieving reveal return192. 191. return retrieve190. 189. 178 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words return n. act of giving back; reply; answer; profit; yield; repayment Forms: plural: returns revere revenue194. 193. reveal v. to show; to exhibit; to display; to expose; to disclose Forms: revealed; revealed; revealing revenue n. income; return; gains; government income earned through taxation Forms: plural: revenues Forms: revered; revered; revering revere v. to respect deeply; to honor greatly reverse adj. having the back side exposed to view; opposite; contrary Forms: plural: reverses review n. survey; general study; examination; inspection review v. to survey; to conduct a general study; to inspect; to examine; to reconsider Forms: plural: reviews Forms: reviewed; reviewed; reviewing reverse n. opposite; contrary; back side; rear; setback; defeat review review198. 197. reverse reverse196. 195. revise v. to make changes in order to improve something; to edit; to correct Forms: revised; revised; revising revise n. act of making changes; alteration; proof sheet made to verify changes made and check for additional errors Forms: plural: revises revise revise200. 199. revive v. to resuscitate; to bring back to life; to put into action again Forms: revived; revived; reviving revolve v. to rotate; to turn; to spin; to encircle; to think about; to contemplate Forms: revolved; revolved; revolving revolve revive202. 201. reward v. to recompense someone for a service reward n. prize; recompense; benefit received as payment for a service Forms: rewarded; rewarded; rewarding Forms: plural: rewards reward reward204. 203. rise rigorous206. 205. 179 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words rigorous adj. harsh; strict; severe; exact; precise rise v. to stand up; to get into an upright position; to climb; to ascend Forms: rose; risen; rising rise n. slope; incline; increase; ascent; raise in position or status; promotion; angry response Forms: plural: rises rival n. competitor; opponent; contender Forms: plural: rivals rivalry n. competition; contention; act of competing Forms: plural: rivalries rival adj. being in competition; contending rivalry rival210. 209. rival rise208. 207. robust adj. strong; healthy rotten adj. decayed; decomposed; putrid; spoiled; despicable rotten robust212. 211. route n. track; path; customary series of stops during a trip Forms: plural: routes route v. to direct along a particular path; to chart a course Forms: routed; routed; routing route route214. 213. routine n. commonplace activity; everyday task; habit; custom; practice Forms: plural: routines royalties n. percentage of profits paid to an artist for each copy of his work that is sold Forms: plural: royalties rubber n. elastic material derived from of some tropical plants; eraser Forms: plural: rubbers routine adj. commonplace; ordinary; usual; customary; habitual rubber royalties218. 217. routine routine216. 215. rubber rule used for measuring distances Forms: plural: rules rule rubber220. 219. adj. composed of elastic material; made from caoutchouc n. law; custom; common practice; government; flat tool run rule222. 221. 180 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net R 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words rule run v. to govern; to control; to determine; to decide; to decree n. range; journey; track; path; series; sequence Forms: ruled; ruled; ruling rush run224. 223. Forms: plural: runs run v. to operate; to activate; to manage; to direct; to carry out; to fulfill Forms: ran; ran; running Forms: plural: rushes rush n. speed; haste; sudden increase in activity or speed rush v. to hurry; to make haste; to act or move quickly; to cause to hurry Forms: rushed; rushed; rushing rush 225. 181 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S salary safety2. S1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words safety n. freedom from danger; quality of not causing injury or loss; any security device Forms: plural: safeties sales sale4. 3. salary n. periodic wage paid to someone for work; pay Forms: plural: salaries sale reduced price; demand for merchandise; auction Forms: plural: sales sales or service Forms: only plural n. commercial transaction; instance of offering goods at a n. marketing; activities associated with selling a product salient n. angle that points outward salient adj. conspicuous; bulging outward; protruding; remarkable; noticeable Forms: plural: salients salvage n. act of rescuing; rescued items Forms: plural: salvages salvage v. to save from destruction; to rescue Forms: salvaged; salvaged; salvaging salvage salvage8. 7. salient salient6. 5. sample of a larger group Forms: plural: samples Forms: sampled; sampled; sampling sample sample sample10. 9. n. specimen; small part of something; representative part v. to take a small portion of something as a specimen sanitary adj. hygienic; clean; healthy satisfaction n. gratification of a need; remuneration; fulfillment Forms: plural: satisfactions satisfy v. to fulfill; to meet a request or requirement; to compensate; to remunerate Forms: satisfied; satisfied; satisfying save n. action or instance in which the ball or puck is prevented from entering the goal Forms: plural: saves savvy adj. experienced; knowledgeable (Slang) save prep. except; besides; but saw savvy18. 17. savvy save16. 15. save satisfy14. 13. satisfaction sanitary12. 11. 182 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words savvy n. understanding; wisdom; intelligence (Slang) saw n. tool for cutting consisting of a toothed blade; saying; maxim; proverb Forms: no plural scale saw20. 19. Forms: plural: saws saw v. to cut with a toothed blade scale n. progression of steps; table of graduated rates; system of marks used for measuring Forms: sawed; sawn; sawing Forms: plural: scales scale v. to climb; to ascend; to weigh; to do according to a particular ratio Forms: scaled; scaled; scaling Forms: plural: scans scan n. close examination; scrutinizing look scan scale22. 21. scan an optical device to browse Forms: scanned; scanned; scanning scanner into digital images (Computers) Forms: plural: scanners scanner scan24. 23. v. to convert an object or image into a digital image using n. peripheral device used to convert objects or images scatterbrained adj. unable to think in a clear and orderly manner; giddy or frivolous Forms: plural: scenes scenery n. view; vista; panorama; set; backdrop used on stage to portray a particular setting or locale Forms: plural: sceneries Forms: plural: schedules schedule n. timetable; agenda; itinerary; plan scene n. place where an event occurs; vista; view schedule scenery28. 27. scene scatterbrained26. 25. schedule v. to create a timetable; to enter into a timetable; to plan for a certain date Forms: scheduled; scheduled; scheduling science n. system of knowledge gained by research; specific field of systematic knowledge; skill; proficiency Forms: plural: sciences science schedule30. 29. score scope32. 31. 183 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words scope n. range; extent; sphere; expanse score n. group of twenty items; debt; account; bill; grade on a test Forms: plural: scopes scramble score34. 33. Forms: plural: scores score v. to gain; to obtain; to earn a point (in a game, etc.); to tally; to grade a test Forms: scored; scored; scoring scramble n. climb over rough terrain; struggle for possession; disorderly or chaotic proceeding Forms: plural: scrambles scramble v. to jumble; to mix together confusedly; to clamber; to climb on all fours Forms: scrambled; scrambled; scrambling Forms: plural: scratches scratch n. abrasion; cut; score of zero; cash; money (Slang) scratch scramble36. 35. scratch v. to rub; to achieve or obtain with difficulty; to delete; to cross out Forms: scratched; scratched; scratching screen n. part of a television or computer monitor where the picture is displayed Forms: plural: screens screen scratch38. 37. screen v. to cover with a curtain; to filter; to sift; to hide; to conceal; to separate Forms: screened; screened; screening scrutinize v. to examine; to investigate; to check closely; to inspect Forms: scrutinized; scrutinized; scrutinizing search n. quest; hunt; instance of looking for something; investigation; examination Forms: plural: searches Forms: searched; searched; searching search v. to hunt for; to look for; to investigate; to examine seamlessly adv. smoothly; continuously; inconspicuously scrupulous adj. moral; adhering to ethical principles; precise; strict; exact search search44. 43. seamlessly scrutinize42. 41. scrupulous screen40. 39. season season46. 45. 184 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words season n. one of the four quarters of the year (winter, spring, summer, autumn) Forms: plural: seasons second second48. 47. season v. to spice; to flavor; to accustom; to acclimatize; to become experienced Forms: seasoned; seasoned; seasoning second v. to support a proposal or statement; to endorse; to approve; to help; to assist Forms: seconded; seconded; seconding secret n. information that is confidential or classified; mystery; unexplained phenomenon Forms: plural: secrets section n. part; district; paragraph; passage; department; unit Forms: plural: sections section v. to divide; to split Forms: sectioned; sectioned; sectioning secret adj. classified; confidential; clandestine; covert; hidden; latent second adj. next after the first; alternate; other; additional; subordinate; having a lower rank section section52. 51. secret secret50. 49. secure v. to obtain; to protect; to defend; to strengthen Forms: secured; secured; securing security n. safety; pledge; guarantee; stock; bond Forms: plural: securities seek v. to go in search of; to look for; to search for; to request Forms: sought; sought; seeking secure adj. safe; protected; strong; stable; confident seek security56. 55. secure secure54. 53. seem v. to appear to be; to look like; to give the impression of; to have the appearance of Forms: seemed; seemed; seeming Forms: plural: segments segment n. part; portion; slice; piece segment seem58. 57. segment v. to partition; to be partitioned Forms: segmented; segmented; segmenting select v. to choose; to pick out Forms: selected; selected; selecting select segment60. 59. selection select62. 61. 185 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words select adj. chosen; picked out; choice; superior; prime; picky selection n. choice; assortment; collection of items available to choose Forms: plural: selections self-employed adj. independent; independent contractor; business owner; person who is not a hired laborer semester n. one of the two periods of an academic year (usually 15-18 weeks) Forms: plural: semesters seminar n. educational meeting; training session Forms: plural: seminars senior n. person of higher rank; older person; elder Forms: plural: seniors senior seminar66. 65. semester self-employed64. 63. senior adj. older; elder; having a higher rank; aged sense n. any of the five faculties of perception; perception; recognition; awareness Forms: plural: senses sense v. to feel; to perceive; to apprehend; to understand sensible adj. rational; reasonable; wise; judicious; cognizant; aware Forms: sensed; sensed; sensing sensitive adj. having the capacity for feeling; susceptible to external influences or agents separate v. to segregate; to set apart; to split; to divide; to disconnect Forms: separated; separated; separating separate adj. detached; disconnected; distinct; set apart sequence n. progression; succession; order; arrangement Forms: plural: sequences series installments Forms: only plural serious humorless; grim serious series76. 75. sequence separate74. 73. separate sensitive72. 71. sensible sense70. 69. sense senior68. 67. n. sequence; succession; television program broadcast in adj. solemn; acute; critical; requiring much consideration; serve serve78. 77. 186 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words serve n. opening stroke or hit of the ball (Sports) Forms: plural: serves service service80. 79. serve v. to tend to; to attend; to work; to perform a duty or task Forms: served; served; serving service n. act of providing; act of offering; work; labor; function; role; offer Forms: plural: services session n. meeting; assembly; term; semester set n. system; group of items; collection; posture; carriage; series; sequence Forms: plural: sessions Forms: plural: sets service adj. useful; providing assistance; repairing; performing maintenance tasks set session82. 81. set adj. fixed; arranged; prepared; resolute; firmly resolved; determined in advance set out v. to display; to undertake; to attempt; to begin a journey; to arrange Forms: set out; set out; setting out set up v. to establish; to start; to found; to being; to raise setback n. obstacle; misfortune; something which hinders progress Forms: set up; set up; setting up Forms: plural: setbacks setback up86. set 85. out set set84. 83. setup n. arrangement; structure; organization; hoax; configuration of hardware or software (Computers) Forms: plural: setups severe adj. serious; grave; acute; difficult; rigorous; harsh; strict severely adv. seriously; gravely; acutely; critically several adj. some; few; separate; distinct; individual; various severely severe90. 89. several setup88. 87. shape n. form; model; image; condition; fitness; mold Forms: plural: shapes shape v. to design; to mold; to form; to direct; to be formed Forms: shaped; shaped; shaping shape shape92. 91. share share94. 93. 187 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words share n. part; portion; quota; allocation; issue of stock share v. to divide; to apportion; to receive a portion; to participate Forms: plural: shares sharp shareholder96. 95. Forms: shared; shared; sharing shareholder n. person or organization that owns part of a company Forms: plural: shareholders sharp n. sewing needle; swindler; cheater; professional gambler Forms: no plural sharp adj. having a thin edge intended for cutting; sudden; clear; smart shelf n. a support that consists of a horizontal surface for holding objects; projection; rock ledge; sandbank Forms: plural: shelves ship n. large vessel made for sailing on the sea; aircraft; spacecraft Forms: plural: ships ship v. to send; to dispatch; to transport (by airplane, truck, etc.); to embark Forms: shipped; shipped; shipping ship ship100. 99. shelf sharp98. 97. shipment n. sending of cargo or freight shipping n. business of sending or transporting cargo; sea voyage (Archaic) Forms: plural: shipments Forms: plural: shippings shipping shipment102. 101. shipyard n. place where vessels are built and repaired Forms: plural: shipyards shop n. small retail store; studio; business; office; outlet Forms: plural: shops shop shipyard104. 103. shop v. to visit a store and purchase goods; to browse in a store; to inform on; to betray (British Slang) Forms: shopped; shopped; shopping Forms: plural: shortages shortage n. lack; scarcity; deficit; deficiency shortage shop106. 105. should v. must (indicating duty or obligation); would (softening the statement) Forms: modal verb shredder n. device used to destroy documents by cutting them into small strips or pieces Forms: plural: shredders shredder should108. 107. sick shrewdness110. 109. 188 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words shrewdness n. intelligence; ability to think in a clever manner sick adj. ill; nauseous; feeling the need to vomit; disgusted; fed up Forms: no plural sight n. vision; ability to see; look; glimpse; spectacle sight v. to see with the eyes; to view; to notice; to discern; to observe Forms: plural: sights sign sign114. 113. sight sight112. 111. Forms: sighted; sighted; sighting sign n. mark; symbol; indication; hint; trace; notice; advertisement Forms: plural: signs Forms: signed; signed; signing sign v. to mark; to indicate; to write one's name significance n. meaning; sense; quality of having meaning significant adj. important; consequential; meaningful; having meaning; of a considerable amount Forms: no plural signification n. meaning; sense; importance; consequence; act of pointing out Forms: plural: significations signify v. to represent; to indicate; to communicate; to express; to convey Forms: signified; signified; signifying signify signification118. 117. significant significance116. 115. similar adj. alike; having common qualities; comparable simple n. stupid person substance unmixed with other substances; commoner Forms: plural: simples simple adj. easy; uncomplicated; modest; ordinary; plain simulate v. to copy; to pretend; to fake Forms: simulated; simulated; simulating sincere simulation124. 123. simulate simple122. 121. simple similar120. 119. 189 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words simulation or features of one system using an other system Forms: plural: simulations sincere earnest n. act of pretending; counterfeit; imitation of the operation adj. honest; truthful; frank; straightforward; genuine; sincerely adv. honestly; genuinely; earnestly; faithfully sink n. wash basin; sewer; drain; cesspool; place where criminals gather Forms: plural: sinks sink in water) Forms: sunk; sunk; sinking Forms: plural: sites site site sink128. 127. sink sincerely126. 125. v. to submerge; to fall down below the surface (especially n. place; location; area site v. to locate situation n. condition; circumstance; location; position; job; place of employment Forms: sited; sited; siting Forms: plural: situations situation site130. 129. size n. spatial dimension; measurement; extent; degree Forms: plural: sizes size v. to arrange according to dimension Forms: sized; sized; sizing size size132. 131. skill n. ability; aptitude; proficiency; expertise; craft or trade that requires special training Forms: plural: skills skim n. a thin layer covering the surface of a liquid; film; thin layer Forms: no plural skim skill134. 133. skim surface of a liquid Forms: skimmed; skimmed; skimming Forms: no plural skirting skirting skim136. 135. v. read superficially; to cause an object to skip across the n. act of going around; avoidance; evasion slander slander138. 137. 190 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words slander n. false and injurious statements made about another; defamation; calumny Forms: no plural slantwise slantwise140. 139. slander v. to make false and injurious statements about another; to defame; to vilify; to malign Forms: slandered; slandered; slandering slantwise adj. sloping; inclined slantwise adv. at an angle; obliquely; in a slanting direction slash n. punctuation mark in the form of a diagonal line (/); reduction; decrease Forms: plural: slashes slash v. to cut with a sharp quick stroke; to reduce; to lower; to criticize strongly Forms: slashed; slashed; slashing slash slash142. 141. slice n. thin piece cut from a larger object; portion; share Forms: plural: slices slice v. to cut into portions; to cleave Forms: sliced; sliced; slicing slice slice144. 143. slip n. slide; stumble; mistake; blunder; error slip v. to glide; to sneak; to slide; to decline; to deteriorate; to make a mistake Forms: plural: slips Forms: slipped; slipped; slipping slip slip146. 145. slogan n. motto; catchword; attention getting phrase used in advertising Forms: plural: slogans slope n. side of a hill; incline; upward or downward slant; degree to which a surface deviates from the vertical Forms: plural: slopes slope slogan148. 147. slope v. to incline; to slant upward or downward; to cause to tilt slot n. notch; narrow opening; place; position (within a system, etc.) Forms: sloped; sloped; sloping Forms: plural: slots slot slope150. 149. slot v. to notch; to groove; to assign to a place or position (in an organization, system, etc.) Forms: slotted; slotted; slotting slump n. recession; sudden decrease; drooping posture; slouch; collapse Forms: plural: slumps slump slot152. 151. small slump154. 153. 191 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words slump v. to collapse; to decline; to decrease; to deteriorate; to settle Forms: slumped; slumped; slumping small adj. little; few in number; trivial; unimportant; modest small adv. softly; in a low voice; without strength or force; weakly; into little pieces Forms: plural: smarts smart adj. intelligent; clever; shrewd; lively; fashionable; stylish smoothly adv. gently; without roughness or projections; evenly; calmly sneakers n. sports shoe; one who moves about stealthily; one who acts furtively Forms: plural: sneakers Forms: soared; soared; soaring soar v. to glide; to fly upward; to ascend; to increase; to rise smart n. sharp stinging pain soar sneakers160. 159. smoothly smart158. 157. smart small156. 155. society fellowship; companionship Forms: plural: societies software n. programs which control the functions of a computer's hardware Forms: no plural Forms: plural: solaces solace n. consolation; relief from distress; source of comfort society society society162. 161. n. association; organization; community; rich upper class; adj. of or pertaining to the upper class solace software164. 163. solace v. to comfort; to console; to encourage; to relieve; to appease Forms: solaced; solaced; solacing solicit v. to try and obtain something through persuasion or earnest requests Forms: solicited; solicited; soliciting Forms: solved; solved; solving solve v. to find the answer to; to explain solely adv. only; exclusively; merely solve solicit168. 167. solely solace166. 165. sophisticated somber170. 169. 192 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words somber adj. gloomy; dark; depressing; sad; mournful sort sort172. 171. sophisticated adj. refined; cultured; complex; intricate; complicated sort n. type; kind; character; manner; quality sort v. to classify; to organize; to separate from others; to clarify Forms: plural: sorts Forms: sorted; sorted; sorting sound n. vibrations that can be detected by the human ear; noise; vocal utterance Forms: plural: sounds source n. origin; starting point source v. to originate from; to reveal the origin of something; to obtain from a particular supplier Forms: plural: sources Forms: sourced; sourced; spacing sound adj. whole; healthy; in good condition; sane; firm; valid source source176. 175. sound sound174. 173. space n. universe; empty area; gap; area; interval Forms: plural: spaces space v. to set some distance apart Forms: spaced; spaced; spacing space space178. 177. span n. length; distance; duration; period of time span v. to extend across; to stretch from one point another; to bridge Forms: plural: spans Forms: spanned; spanned; spanning span span180. 179. special n. reduced price; sale on particular items; extra newspaper edition Forms: plural: specials specialize v. to devote oneself to a particular profession or field of study; to limit Forms: specialized; specialized; specializing Forms: plural: specialties specialty n. distinguishing mark; unique ability; area of expertise special adj. unusual; exceptional; unique; particular; highly valued specialty specialize184. 183. special special182. 181. specify specification186. 185. 193 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words specification n. item or detail included in a description of requirements or plans Forms: plural: specifications speed speech188. 187. specify v. to indicate; to itemize; to mark; to designate; to stipulate Forms: specified; specified; specifying speech speed vehicle Forms: plural: speeches Forms: plural: speeds n. speaking ability; something that is communicated orally n. quickness; velocity; transmission gear in a motor speed v. to accelerate; to cause to move quickly; to expedite; to further; to hurry Forms: sped; sped; speeding spend v. to expend; to disburse; to put out (money, resources, etc.) Forms: spent; spent; spending spend speed190. 189. splendid adj. wonderful; excellent; marvelous; grand; elegant; magnificent sponsor n. one who donates money; person or organization that promotes or supports (an event, program, candidate, etc.) Forms: plural: sponsors sponsor sporadic sporadic sponsor194. 193. sponsor splendid192. 191. v. to back; to support; to finance; to subsidize; to promote adj. irregular; fitful; occasional; infrequent Forms: sponsored; sponsored; sponsoring spot n. roundish stain; speck; place; awkward or difficult situation; predicament Forms: plural: spots spread n. expansion; growth; range; story or advertisement that covers two pages Forms: plural: spreads spy spy200. 199. spread spread198. 197. spot spot196. 195. spot adj. made or done immediately; paid at once; performed randomly spread v. to open; to extend; to apply a layer on; to scatter; to distribute Forms: spread; spread; spreading 194 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words spy n. secret agent; person who secretly investigates and gathers information about other people Forms: plural: spies square square202. 201. spy v. to provide secret information about another country; to examine Forms: spied; spied; spying square n. geometric figure having four equal sides; plaza Forms: plural: squares stable n. structure in which horses and other animals are housed Forms: plural: stables stack n. heap; tall bookshelf; chimney Forms: plural: stacks stack v. to place one thing on top of another in a heap; to pile Forms: stacked; stacked; stacking stable adj. steady; firm; lasting; dependable; faithful square adj. having four equal sides enclosing four equal angles stack stack206. 205. stable stable204. 203. staff n. employees working in an organization; personnel; crew; team Forms: plural: staffs staff v. to employ a group of workers; to provide with employees; to man Forms: staffed; staffed; staffing staff staff208. 207. stage n. raised platform; resting place on a journey; phase Forms: plural: stages stage v. to perform; to present; to carry out; to execute Forms: staged; staged; staging stage stage210. 209. stake n. wager; bet; investment; share Forms: plural: stakes stake v. to risk; to gamble; to finance; to underwrite Forms: staked; staked; staking stake stake212. 211. stall n. stand; booth; pen; pretext to delay Forms: plural: stalls stall v. to put into a stable; to delay; to check the progress of Forms: stalled; stalled; stalling stall stall214. 213. out stand stance216. 215. 195 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words stance n. physical position or bearing; opinion; attitude stand out v. to be conspicuous; to be noticeable; to project; to protrude Forms: plural: stances standard standard218. 217. Forms: stood out; stood out; standing out standard n. model; criterion; norm; average; commodity which backs a monetary system Forms: plural: standards standpoint n. outlook; perspective; view; opinion; attitude Forms: plural: standpoints staple n. metal clip for binding papers; essential element Forms: plural: staples standard adj. serving as a model; normal; regular; typical; widely accepted staple standpoint220. 219. staple adj. essential; regularly used; primary; principal; main (of goods or products) Forms: plural: states state adj. governmental; bureaucratic; majestic; dignified statement n. declaration; allegation; official account Forms: plural: statements station n. position; place where a person or thing is usually found; headquarters; broadcast frequency Forms: plural: stations Forms: stationed; stationed; stationing station v. to assign to a particular post or position; to appoint state n. condition; phase; mood; splendor; nation station station226. 225. statement state224. 223. state staple222. 221. stationary adj. still; fixed in place; static; settled; tending to stay in one place Forms: plural: stationeries statistics n. organization and interpretation of numerical data status n. individual's social or professional standing; position; rank; present situation Forms: only plural Forms: plural: statuses stationery n. paper used for writing letters status statistics230. 229. stationery stationary228. 227. stay stay232. 231. 196 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words stay a legal proceeding Forms: plural: stays stem steadfast234. 233. stay to lodge Forms: stayed; stayed; staying n. act of halting; visit; temporary residence; suspension of v. to visit; to spend time in a place; to remain temporarily; steadfast adj. loyal; faithful; unchanging stem n. central stalk of a plant; petiole Forms: plural: stems stem v. to arise; to come from; to originate; to stop; to check step n. movement made by lifting the foot and setting it down in another place; stair; stage in a process Forms: stemmed; stemmed; stemming Forms: plural: steps step stem236. 235. step pref. related to by the remarriage of a parent and not by blood still n. silence; quiet; photograph Forms: plural: stills stipendiary adj. receiving of a regular or fixed payment stipulate v. to require that certain conditions be met before the signing of a contract; to specify; to require Forms: stipulated; stipulated; stipulating stock n. supply of goods; inventory; share; company's capital divided into shares Forms: plural: stocks stop n. cessation; end; visit; obstacle; hindrance Forms: plural: stops stop v. to halt; to cease; to quit; to close; to block; to impede Forms: stopped; stopped; stopping stock adj. available on a regular basis; employed to handle merchandise or goods still adj. quiet; tranquil; calm; motionless sternly adv. strictly; firmly stop stop246. 245. stock stock244. 243. stipulate stipendiary242. 241. still still240. 239. sternly step238. 237. store store248. 247. 197 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words store n. shop; place where merchandise is sold; supply of goods or materials set aside for future use Forms: plural: stores straight story250. 249. store v. to amass; to accumulate; to supply; to equip Forms: stored; stored; storing story n. true or fictional account of some occurrence; short work of fiction; plot; news report Forms: plural: stories Forms: plural: straights straight n. line that is not curved; section that is not curved straight adj. having no curves or bends; frank; continuous; honest; consistent strap v. to tie with a narrow piece of leather; to lash strategy n. plans or methods created for the purpose of achieving a goal Forms: strapped; strapped; strapping Forms: plural: strategies straightforward adj. frank; candid; sincere; honest; simple; uncomplicated strategy strap254. 253. straightforward straight252. 251. streamline n. path along which a fluid flows; direction in which a particle flows; aerodynamic shape Forms: plural: streamlines Forms: streamlined; streamlined; streamlining streamline v. to make more efficient; to organize; to simplify streamline streamline256. 255. strength n. durability; determination; resolve; power; intensity; force Forms: plural: strengths Forms: strengthened; strengthened; strengthening strengthen v. to make strong; to fortify; to reinforce; to toughen strengthen strength258. 257. stress n. emphasis; importance; accent; strain; tension; pressure Forms: plural: stresses Forms: stressed; stressed; stressing stress v. to emphasize; to accentuate stress stress260. 259. stretch v. to extend; to elongate; to reach out; to pull; to strain strike n. temporary work stoppage; good luck; discovery of natural resources Forms: stretched; stretched; stretching Forms: plural: strikes strike stretch262. 261. striped strike264. 263. 198 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words strike v. to temporarily cease working as a protest; to impress striped adj. marked with narrow bands of contrasting color or texture Forms: struck; stricken; striking strive v. to endeavor; to try hard; to compete; to struggle; to resist Forms: strove; striven; striving study structure268. 267. structure strive266. 265. structure n. building; something created from a number of interconnecting parts Forms: plural: structures structure v. to organize; to arrange; to give form to study n. learning; field of learning; thorough investigation; report; analysis Forms: structured; structured; structuring Forms: plural: studies study v. to learn; to ponder; to examine; to investigate; to memorize Forms: studied; studied; studying Forms: plural: styles style n. manner; way; fashion; chic; vogue style study270. 269. style v. to plan; to design; to name; to call Forms: styled; styled; styling subject n. topic; branch of studies; major; citizen; motive Forms: plural: subjects subject style272. 271. subject adj. under the rule of; subordinate; exposed to; liable to; conditional submit v. to give in; to surrender; to yield; to present; to propose subordinate n. one who is subservient; someone under the authority of another Forms: submitted; submitted; submitting Forms: plural: subordinates subjectively adv. based on individual thoughts and feelings subordinate submit276. 275. subjectively subject274. 273. subordinate of another subscribe support; to approve Forms: subscribed; subscribed; subscribing subscribe subordinate278. 277. adj. inferior; of secondary importance; under the authority v. to endorse; to donate; to contribute; to pledge; to subside subscription280. 279. 199 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words subscription n. payment given for regularly scheduled performances or publications Forms: plural: subscriptions subsidiary subsidiary282. 281. subside v. to descend; to decline; to abate; to lessen Forms: subsided; subsided; subsiding subsidiary n. company that is owned or controlled by another company Forms: plural: subsidiaries subsidize v. to provide financial assistance Forms: subsidized; subsidized; subsidizing subsidy n. financial assistance Forms: plural: subsidies subsidiary adj. supplementary; auxiliary; secondary; lesser in importance subsidy subsidize284. 283. substantial adj. firm; wealthy; influential; important; considerable substantiate v. to prove; to verify; to confirm; to actualize Forms: substantiated; substantiated; substantiated substantive n. word or phrase functioning as a noun Forms: plural: substantives substitute n. replacement; person or thing that takes the place of another Forms: plural: substitutes subtract v. to take away part of a whole; to remove; to deduct Forms: subtracted; subtracted; subtracting succeed v. to prosper; to achieve; to attain; to follow; to inherit Forms: succeeded; succeeded; succeeding substitute adj. acting as a replacement substantive adj. existing independently; real; tangible succeed subtract292. 291. substitute substitute290. 289. substantive substantive288. 287. substantiate substantial286. 285. success n. attainment of something desired or attempted; accomplishment; prosperity Forms: plural: successes succinct adj. stated briefly but clearly; clear and concise; short and to the point suggest sufficient296. 295. succinct success294. 293. 200 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words sufficient adj. enough; adequate suggest v. to propose; to mention; to imply; to hint; to evoke Forms: suggested; suggested; suggesting suggestion n. proposal; recommendation; insinuation; hint suit n. matching outfit consisting of a jacket and trousers or a skirt; request; courtship Forms: plural: suggestions Forms: plural: suits suit suggestion298. 297. suit v. to fit; to match; to satisfy; to please; to clothe Forms: suited; suited; suiting suitcase n. rectangular traveling bag; valise Forms: plural: suitcases suitcase suit300. 299. suite n. group of things that together form a set; group of attendants Forms: plural: suites Forms: plural: sums sum n. whole amount; entire quantity; essence; gist sum suite302. 301. sum v. to add summarize v. to present in a condensed form; to list the main points in a brief and comprehensive manner Forms: summed; summed; summing Forms: summarized; summarized; summarizing summarize sum304. 303. superb adj. excellent; wonderful; splendid; magnificent superfluous adj. being more than is needed; excessive; unnecessary superfluous superb306. 305. superior n. one who is higher than another in rank or position superior adj. higher in rank or position; above average; exceptional Forms: plural: superiors supervise v. to oversee; to administer; to direct; to manage; to watch over Forms: supervised; supervised; supervising Forms: plural: supervisors supervisor n. overseer; director; manager supervisor supervise310. 309. superior superior308. 307. supplement supervisory312. 311. 201 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words supervisory adj. managerial; overseeing supplement n. something which makes up for a deficiency; addition; extra added part Forms: plural: supplements supplement v. to make up for a deficiency; to add on to Forms: supplemented; supplemented; supplementing supplier n. provider Forms: plural: suppliers supply n. act of providing; provision; reserve; stock Forms: plural: supplies supplementary adj. additional; extra supply supplier316. 315. supplementary supplement314. 313. supply v. to furnish; to equip; to make up for; to compensate for; to substitute for temporarily Forms: supplied; supplied; supplying support n. prop; brace; economic assistance; upkeep; encouragement; aid Forms: plural: supports support supply318. 317. support v. to carry; to encourage; to assist financially; to substantiate Forms: supported; supported; supporting suppose v. to presume to be true; to hypothesize; to believe Forms: supposed; supposed; supposing surface n. exterior or upper boundary of a thing; external part or layer; outward appearance Forms: plural: surfaces surmise v. to infer; to conjecture; to guess; to presume Forms: surmised; surmised; surmising surplus n. profit; amount of assets that is higher than liabilities Forms: plural: surpluses surface adj. external surely adv. confidently; certainly; without a doubt; yes; of course supportive adj. providing assistance surplus surmise326. 325. surface surface324. 323. surely suppose322. 321. supportive support320. 319. surprise surprise328. 327. 202 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words surprise n. astonishment; something which startles or astonishes; unexpected event Forms: plural: surprises survey surveillance330. 329. surprise v. to startle; to astonish; to ambush Forms: surprised; surprised; surprising surveillance n. careful observation of a person or group Forms: no plural survey n. review; overview; statistical study Forms: plural: surveys survey v. to look over; to observe; to examine carefully; to study survive v. to outlive; to remain in use; to outlast; to endure; to withstand Forms: surveyed; surveyed; surveying Forms: survived; survived; surviving survive survey332. 331. susceptible adj. vulnerable; prone; impressionable suspect adj. doubtful; dubious suspect susceptible334. 333. suspend v. to hang; to postpone; to defer; to expel sustain v. to support; to provide for; to finance; to assist; to encourage Forms: suspended; suspended; suspending Forms: sustained; sustained; sustaining sustain suspend336. 335. swap n. exchange; trade Forms: plural: swaps swap v. to exchange one thing for another; to trade; to barter Forms: swapped; swapped; swapping swap swap338. 337. sway n. moving back and forth; influence; control; authority sway v. to move back and forth; to lean in a certain direction; to be sympathetic to; to hesitate Forms: plural: sways Forms: swayed; swayed; swaying sway sway340. 339. sweater n. pullover; employer who underpays his employees swift n. financial industry owned cooperative supplying secure, standardized messaging services to financial institutions Forms: plural: sweaters Forms: plural: swifts swift sweater342. 341. switch swift344. 343. 203 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net S 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words swift adj. fast; immediate; prompt; smart switch n. exchange; transfer; device Forms: plural: switches switch v. to change; to shift; to exchange; to trade; to turn on or off Forms: switched; switched; switching switchboard n. panel containing buttons for connecting and disconnecting telephone or electrical circuits Forms: plural: switchboards switchboard switch346. 345. sympathy n. affinity; compassion; pity; concern; empathy symposium n. meeting or conference at which a specific topic is discussed Forms: plural: sympathies Forms: plural: symposiums symposium sympathy348. 347. synthesis system complex whole Forms: plural: syntheses Forms: plural: systems system synthesis350. 349. n. combining of separate elements into a complete whole n. combination of related things or parts that form a systematically adv. methodically; in an organized fashion systematically 351. 204 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net T table table2. T1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words table flat surface Forms: plural: tables tackle tackle4. 3. table aside for future consideration Forms: tabled; tabled; tabling n. list of information arranged in columns and rows; chart; v. to enter information into a chart; to postpone; to set tackle n. equipment; device for lifting and lowering objects Forms: plural: tackles tackle v. to deal with; to stop; to undertake; to set about Forms: tackled; tackled; tackling tailor n. one who makes or alters garments Forms: plural: tailors tailor v. to create or adapt for a particular need or desire Forms: tailored; tailored; tailoring tailor tailor6. 5. take n. amount collected at one time; income; proceeds; profits (Informal) Forms: plural: takes Forms: took; taken; taking take v. to seize; to capture; to possess; to contract take take8. 7. take over v. to capture; to assume control takeover n. act of assuming control of something (as in a government or business) Forms: took over; taken over; taking over Forms: plural: takeovers takeover over10. take 9. talk n. conversation; speech; lecture; meeting talk v. to converse; to speak; to spread rumors; to lecture; to reveal secret information Forms: plural: talks Forms: talked; talked; talking talk talk12. 11. talkative adj. chatty; loquacious tall adj. having a specified height; difficult to believe; exaggerated; challenging tantalizing and then withholding it Forms: tantalized; tantalized; tantalizing tantamount tantamount tantalizing16. 15. tall talkative14. 13. v. to tempt or tease by presenting something as available adj. equivalent to; equal to target target18. 17. 205 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net T 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words target n. mark; objective; aim; object; goal Forms: plural: targets task task20. 19. target v. to aim at something Forms: targeted; targeted; targeting task n. job; assignment; obligation; role Forms: plural: tasks task v. to give assignments; to overburden; to strain Forms: tasked; tasked; tasking taste n. perception of flavor; sense; reason Forms: plural: tastes taste v. to check flavor by eating; to attempt; to try Forms: tasted; tasted; tasting taste taste22. 21. tax n. levy; fee tax v. to impose a tariff; to impose a levy; to burden; to demand too much Forms: plural: taxes Forms: taxed; taxed; taxing tax tax24. 23. technician n. specialist in repairs of machinery and appliances Forms: plural: technicians technique n. method of performance Forms: plural: techniques technique technician26. 25. technology n. sciences of the industrial arts; applied sciences Forms: plural: technologies temper n. disposition; mood Forms: plural: tempers temper technology28. 27. temper v. to moderate; to soften; to tone down; to toughen; to harden Forms: tempered; tempered; tempering tenant n. lodger; occupant; resident; renter; landlord Forms: plural: tenants tenant v. to rent; to inhabit; to occupy Forms: tenanted; tenanted; tenanting temporary adj. passing; brief tenant tenant32. 31. temporary temper30. 29. tender tender34. 33. 206 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net T 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words tender n. bid; offer; overseer; supervisor Forms: plural: tenders tender adj. gentle; soft; delicate tense n. inflection; verbal 'time' Forms: plural: tenses tension n. tautness; strain; nervousness; agitation; apprehension Forms: plural: tensions tenure n. strength; period; permanence Forms: plural: tenures term n. word; expression; idiom; condition; stipulation Forms: plural: terms tentative adj. experimental; trial; temporary; hesitant tense adj. strained; taut; rigid; nervous; stressful term tenure40. 39. tentative tension38. 37. tense tense36. 35. term v. to name; to call; to designate Forms: termed; termed; terming terminal n. either end of a passenger line; bus or train station Forms: plural: terminals terminal term42. 41. terminal adj. end; closing; concluding; final; mortal terminology n. nomenclature; specific vocabulary Forms: plural: terminologies terrible adj. awful territory n. region; district; zone; area; domain Forms: plural: territories testify v. to bear witness; to declare under oath; to attest Forms: testified; testified; testifying testimonial n. letter of recommendation Forms: plural: testimonials testimonial testify48. 47. territory terrible46. 45. terminology terminal44. 43. thorough adj. comprehensive; complete; finished thoroughness n. diligence; neatness Forms: no plural though though52. 51. thoroughness thorough50. 49. 207 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net T 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words though conj. despite; in spite of thread thought54. 53. though adv. anyway thought n. idea; concept; product of the mind Forms: plural: thoughts thread n. string; thin cord; Internet discussion Forms: plural: threads thread v. to pass something through an opening threat n. expression of intent to damage or injure; intimidation; danger Forms: threaded; threaded; threading Forms: plural: threats threat thread56. 55. thrive v. to prosper; to flourish; to succeed Forms: throve; thriven; thriving throughout adv. in every; during thus adv. therefore; so throughout prep. in every part; at every point or moment thus throughout60. 59. throughout thrive58. 57. ticket n. certificate; entry pass; tag Forms: plural: tickets ticket v. to label; to fine Forms: ticketed; ticketed; ticketing ticket ticket62. 61. tie n. rope; cord; link; connection; equal score in a game Forms: plural: ties tie v. to bind; to fasten with a rope or cord Forms: tied; tied; tying tie tie64. 63. tight adj. close-fitting; tense; narrow tight adv. in a close-fitting manner; firmly tight tight66. 65. time n. period; era; hour; rate Forms: plural: times timeliness n. punctuality Forms: no plural timeliness time68. 67. title n. heading; caption; right; ownership; championship Forms: plural: titles title v. to furnish with a caption or heading Forms: titled; titled; titling title title70. 69. token token72. 71. 208 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net T 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words token n. symbol; sign; mark; remembrance Forms: plural: tokens token adj. nominal; symbolic; perfunctory toll n. tax; charge; levy; grievous price Forms: plural: tolls tool n. apparatus; device Forms: plural: tools tool toll74. 73. top n. summit; peak; head Forms: plural: tops topic n. theme; subject of conversation; issue Forms: plural: topics total n. sum; whole Forms: plural: totals top adj. highest; prime; leading total topic78. 77. top top76. 75. total adj. entire; complete; absolute tour n. voyage; sightseeing excursion; trip; route Forms: plural: tours tour v. to sightsee; to voyage; to travel Forms: toured; toured; touring tow n. act of dragging or pulling with a rope or chain Forms: plural: tows tow tour82. 81. tour total80. 79. tow v. to pull; to drag Forms: towed; towed; towing town n. city Forms: plural: towns town tow84. 83. town adj. of a city; local track n. lane; path; signs; trails; channel Forms: plural: tracks track v. to follow Forms: tracked; tracked; tracking trade n. business; commerce; barter; occupation Forms: plural: trades trade track88. 87. track town86. 85. tradition trade90. 89. 209 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net T 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words trade adj. commercial; of commerce tradition n. custom; practice; convention Forms: plural: traditions traditional adj. customary traffic n. movement of vehicles or persons; trade; commerce; load of messages in a communications network Forms: no plural traffic v. to deal in; to sell Forms: trafficked; trafficked; trafficking trail n. track; footprints; path; way Forms: plural: trails trail traffic94. 93. traffic traditional92. 91. trail v. to follow; to drag; to tow Forms: trailed; trailed; trailing transact v. to carry out; to conduct; to perform Forms: transacted; transacted; transacting transact trail96. 95. transaction n. negotiation; settlement; business deal Forms: plural: transactions transcend v. to excel; to rise above Forms: transcended; transcended; transcending transcend transaction98. 97. transcendent adj. sublime; exalted; superior transfer n. exchange; conveying something from one person to another Forms: plural: transfers transfer v. to convey; to relocate; to hand over; to pass on trash n. something discarded; rubbish; garbage; refuse; nonsense Forms: transferred; transferred; transferring Forms: plural: trashes trash transfer102. 101. transfer transcendent100. 99. trash v. to throw away; to discard; to destroy; to damage Forms: trashed; trashed; trashing travel n. movement; journeying Forms: plural: travels travel trash104. 103. traveler travel106. 105. 210 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net T 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words travel v. to go on a journey; to move; to go from one place to another Forms: traveled; traveled; traveling treasure tray108. 107. traveler n. one who makes a journey Forms: plural: travelers tray n. flat receptacle used to hold other items; platter Forms: plural: trays treasure v. to put away for future use Forms: treasured; treasured; treasuring treat n. delight; refreshment or entertainment given to its recipient without cost Forms: plural: treats Forms: treated; treated; treating treat v. to relate to; to deal with; to process; to pay for treat treat110. 109. treatment n. therapy; care; relation; attitude; behavior treaty n. formal agreement between two states; compact; covenant; contract Forms: plural: treatments Forms: plural: treaties treaty treatment112. 111. tremendous adj. very great in numbers; huge; powerful trespasser n. one who damages a person or his property or rights Forms: plural: trespassers trial n. test; attempt; experiment; annoyance Forms: plural: trials triangle n. shape having three sides and three corners; group of three Forms: plural: triangles trouble n. problem; misfortune; annoyance; cause of worry trouble v. to worry; to cause concern; to annoy; to bother; to disturb Forms: plural: troubles Forms: troubled; troubled; troubling trivial adj. trifling; unimportant; insignificant; minor trial adj. experimental; exploratory; test; used as a sample trouble trouble120. 119. trivial triangle118. 117. trial trial116. 115. trespasser tremendous114. 113. trust truly122. 121. 211 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net T 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words truly adv. really; genuinely trust n. confidence; faith; credit; monopoly; several companies banded together in order to reduce competition Forms: plural: trusts trust v. to rely on; to extend business credit trustee n. person granted legal custodianship over property not belonging to him Forms: trusted; trusted; trusting Forms: plural: trustees trustee trust124. 123. trustee v. to grant a person or persons legal custodianship over property not belonging to them Forms: trusteed; trusteed; trusteeing turnover n. gross revenues; total business done; rate of selling or producing Forms: plural: turnovers turnover trustee126. 125. twice adv. doubly twice 127. 212 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net U unable ultimately2. U1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words ultimately adv. in the end; eventually unbiased unauthorized4. 3. unable adj. not capable unauthorized adj. unlicensed; forbidden; unlawful unbiased adj. impartial; equitable uncertain adj. doubtful; not reliable; ambiguous uncertainty n. doubtfulness Forms: plural: uncertainties unconventional adj. not standard; not ordinary undercut n. type of beef tenderloin; type of cavity with a broad base Forms: plural: undercuts undercut v. to offer at lower prices than the competition; to weaken; to undermine Forms: undercut; undercut; undercutting Forms: underestimated; underestimated; underestimating underestimate v. to assign too low a value to underestimate undercut10. 9. undercut unconventional8. 7. uncertainty uncertain6. 5. underline n. caption beneath an illustration Forms: plural: underlines underline v. to emphasize Forms: underlined; underlined; underlining underline underline12. 11. understatement n. representing something less strongly than what the facts would justify Forms: plural: understatements unfair adj. biased; dishonest unforeseen adj. not anticipated; not expected underway adj. having begun a journey (especially of a sea vessel); initiated; in progress; under construction unforeseen unfair16. 15. underway understatement14. 13. unfortunately adv. regrettably unify v. to join; to cause to become one Forms: unified; unified; unifying unique union20. 19. unify unfortunately18. 17. 213 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net U 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words union n. workers' association; federation; amalgamation Forms: plural: unions unique adj. singular; matchless; rare uniqueness n. singularity; individuality; incomparability unit n. specific quantity regarded as a standard; combination which acts a whole; piece Forms: no plural Forms: plural: units unit uniqueness22. 21. unjudged adj. objective unless conj. not before; precluding; barring; except; aside from unless unjudged24. 23. unlimited adj. infinite; boundless unlock v. to open; to free from restraints; to release Forms: unlocked; unlocked; unlocking unnecessary adj. excessive; redundant; superfluous unsanitary adj. not healthful; not clean unsanitary unnecessary28. 27. unlock unlimited26. 25. unsatisfactory adj. inadequate; disappointing; not good enough until prep. up to until unsatisfactory30. 29. until conj. up to the time which unveil v. to reveal; to uncover; to disclose Forms: unveiled; unveiled; unveiling upcoming adj. about to happen; imminent update n. more current version of something Forms: plural: updates update v. to modernize; to make current upgrade n. the process of installing a newer and more powerful version of a software package or a piece of hardware Forms: updated; updated; updating Forms: plural: upgrades upgrade update36. 35. update upcoming34. 33. unveil until32. 31. upholstery upgrade38. 37. 214 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net U 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words upgrade v. to improve; to raise the quality of upholstery n. materials that are used to cushion and cover furniture (i.e. fabric, lining, padding, etc.) Forms: upgraded; upgraded; upgrading upwards upon40. 39. Forms: plural: upholsteries upon prep. on; atop upwards adv. to a higher level; more than; higher than urban adj. pertaining to a city; municipal urbanize v. to make into a city Forms: urbanized; urbanized; urbanizing urgent adj. pressing; compelling; immediate; prompt use n. function; utilization; benefit; advantage; consumption Forms: plural: uses use v. to practice; to employ; to exploit; to treat; to consume Forms: used; used; using useless adj. not functional; not practical usual adj. common; regular; ordinary useful adj. functional; practical; applicable usual useless48. 47. useful use46. 45. use urgent44. 43. urbanize urban42. 41. usually adv. commonly; generally; regularly utilization n. the proportion of available time that an item of equipment is operating Forms: plural: utilizations utilize v. to put to practical use; to take advantage of Forms: utilized; utilized; utilizing utilize 51. utilization usually50. 49. 215 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net V vacant vacancy2. V1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words vacancy n. emptiness; available position; job opening Forms: plural: vacancies vacant adj. empty; unfilled; unoccupied; lacking expression vacation n. holiday Forms: plural: vacations vacation v. to go on holiday Forms: vacationed; vacationed; vacationing vacation vacation4. 3. vaccinate v. to render insusceptible to a disease by inoculating vaccination n. act or instance of rendering insusceptible to disease by inoculating Forms: vaccinated; vaccinated; vaccinating Forms: plural: vaccinations vaccination vaccinate6. 5. vacillate v. to fluctuate; to hesitate; to waver valid adj. legitimate; legally acceptable; not expired; logical; well-founded Forms: vacillated; vacillated; vacillating validate v. to confirm; to sanction; to legalize Forms: validated; validated; validating valuable n. something of great worth Forms: plural: valuables valuable validate10. 9. valid vacillate8. 7. valuable adj. of great worth; costly; cherished; dear; important value n. monetary or material worth; importance; merit Forms: plural: values value v. to esteem; to cherish; to assess; to estimate van n. large closed vehicle used for transporting goods or people Forms: valued; valued; valuing Forms: plural: vans van value14. 13. value valuable12. 11. variation variety variety variation16. 15. n. degree of diversity; change; modified version; deviation n. assortment; kind; sort Forms: plural: variations vary various18. 17. Forms: plural: varieties 216 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net V 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words various adj. assorted; different; individual; several vary v. to alter; to change; to fluctuate Forms: varied; varied; varying vast adj. large; enormous; huge vat n. large container; tank; tub Forms: plural: vats vegetable n. plant; edible fruit of a plant Forms: plural: vegetables vegetarian n. one who does not eat meat; herbivore Forms: plural: vegetarians vegetarian vegetable22. 21. vat vast20. 19. vehicle medium Forms: plural: vehicles Forms: plural: veils veil veil vehicle24. 23. n. means of transport (car, bus, etc.); instrument; means; n. netting attached to a woman's hat veil v. to cover; to hide Forms: veiled; veiled; veiling vending machine n. automated device used for selling items Forms: plural: vending machines machine vending veil26. 25. vendor n. salesman; supplier; automatic machine for selling goods Forms: plural: vendors venture n. an undertaking that is dangerous, daring, or of uncertain outcome Forms: plural: ventures venture vendor28. 27. venture v. to take a risk in order to achieve a goal Forms: ventured; ventured; venturing veracity n. truthfulness; something that is a truth Forms: no plural veracity venture30. 29. verify v. to confirm the truth of something versatile adj. fulfilling many functions; multi-purpose; skilled to do many things Forms: verified; verified; verifying vessel version34. 33. versatile verify32. 31. 217 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net V 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words version n. particular form of something; variant; rendering; translation Forms: plural: versions victim viable36. 35. vessel n. large craft made for navigation on water; boat; ship; container Forms: plural: vessels viable adj. capable of living; having a reasonable chance of succeeding; practical Forms: plural: victims viewpoint n. attitude; stance; opinion Forms: plural: viewpoints vilify v. to slander; to defame Forms: vilified; vilified; vilifying victim n. person who falls prey (to an attack, deception, etc.) vilify viewpoint38. 37. violation n. transgression; desecration; attack or disruption; rape Forms: plural: violations virtual n. computerized representation of an actual object Forms: no plural visibility n. quality of being clearly seen Forms: plural: visibilities virtual adj. imaginary; hypothetical; computer simulated visibility virtual42. 41. virtual violation40. 39. visible adj. in view; observable; obvious; apparent visit n. temporary stay somewhere; instance of spending time with a person or group of people; inspection Forms: plural: visits visit v. to stay somewhere temporarily; to make an official inspection Forms: visited; visited; visiting Forms: plural: visitors visitor n. guest; migrating bird visitor visit46. 45. visit visible44. 43. vital adj. lively; vigorous; crucial; critical; necessary vivid adj. lively; bright; dazzling; clear; graphic vivid vital48. 47. voice vocabulary50. 49. 218 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net V 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words vocabulary n. lexicon; list of words and their definitions in alphabetical order Forms: plural: vocabularies volunteer voice52. 51. voice n. sound produced in the throat; expression; language Forms: plural: voices voice v. to raise an opinion; to adjust the tone of volunteer n. one who offers his services of his own free will or without pay Forms: voiced; voiced; voicing Forms: plural: volunteers volunteer v. to offer to do or give something for free; to propose voucher n. certificate that bears monetary value; coupon; receipt; authorizer; endorser Forms: volunteered; volunteered; volunteering Forms: plural: vouchers voucher volunteer54. 53. voyage n. trip; journey; travel; cruise Forms: plural: voyages voyage v. to take a cruise; to travel; to make a journey Forms: voyaged; voyaged; voyaging voyage voyage56. 55. 219 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net W wait wait2. W1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words wait n. staying where one is; expectation; ambush wait v. to be ready or available; to work as an attendant; to postpone Forms: plural: waits waitress waiter4. 3. Forms: waited; waited; waiting waiter n. one who serves tables at a restaurant or pub Forms: plural: waiters waitress n. woman who serves tables in a restaurant or pub Forms: plural: waitresses wallet n. small purse used to carry money and personal documents; billfold; handbag Forms: plural: wallets wallpaper n. picture or design used as a background for the other images in a graphical user interface Forms: plural: wallpapers wallpaper wallet6. 5. warehouse n. depot; wholesale store; large retail store Forms: plural: warehouses warehouse v. to store in a large building Forms: warehoused; warehoused; warehousing warehouse warehouse8. 7. warning n. caution; advice about danger; advance notice Forms: plural: warnings warranty n. guarantee; authority; justification Forms: plural: warranties waste n. misuse; loss; rubbish; garbage; sewage Forms: plural: wastes warning adj. cautioning; giving advice about danger waste warranty12. 11. warning warning10. 9. waste adj. leftover; unused; desolate; desert; destroyed watch n. small clock that is usually worn on the wrist; guarding; observation Forms: plural: watches watch v. to see; to look; to pay attention; to supervise Forms: watched; watched; watching waver v. to sway; to oscillate; to vacillate; to fluctuate Forms: wavered; wavered; wavering waver watch16. 15. watch waste14. 13. weakness weak18. 17. 220 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net W 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words weak adj. frail; feeble; faint; dilute; watery weakness n. drawback; disadvantage; defect; foible Forms: plural: weaknesses wealth n. richness; prosperity; capital; fortune; abundance Forms: no plural weapon n. instrument for use in attack or defense in combat Forms: plural: weapons weapon wealth20. 19. weigh v. to consider; to be of a particular heaviness; to burden weight n. heaviness; unit of mass; pressure; importance; influence Forms: weighed; weighed; weighing Forms: plural: weights weight weigh22. 21. weight v. to load; to oppress; to burden; to regard; to esteem Forms: weighted; weighted; weighting whereas n. this being the case; since (used in formal documents) Forms: no plural whereas weight24. 23. whereas conj. since; inasmuch as; while; while on the contrary whether conj. if whether whereas26. 25. whole n. totality; completeness; entirety Forms: plural: wholes widespread adj. common; popular; extensive; prevalent width n. breadth; thickness Forms: plural: widths will n. last testament listing inheritors of a dying person's property Forms: plural: wills Forms: willed; willed; willing will v. to want; to command; to determine; to decide whole adj. complete; full; entire; healthy will will32. 31. width widespread30. 29. whole whole28. 27. willingness n. readiness; agreeableness Forms: no plural wire n. cord; line; string; telegraph cable Forms: plural: wires wire willingness34. 33. withdraw wire36. 35. 221 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net W 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words wire adj. made of a thin flexible cord of metal withdraw v. to take money from the bank; to retire; to remove Forms: withdrew; withdrawn; withdrawing within prep. during withstand v. to bear; to endure Forms: withstood; withstood; withstanding witness n. testifier; onlooker; bystander; testimony Forms: plural: witnesses witness v. to look on; to see; to observe; to testify; to vouch for Forms: witnessed; witnessed; witnessing witness witness40. 39. withstand within38. 37. wool n. fleece from some animals; frizzy hair Forms: plural: wools work n. labor; task; profession; occupation; vocation; effort Forms: plural: works work wool42. 41. work v. to labor; to act; to operate; to activate; to process workshop n. seminar; brief intensive educational program; discussion group Forms: worked; worked; working Forms: plural: workshops workshop work44. 43. worry n. concern; fear; misfortune; distress worry v. to be concerned; to harass; to advance through great effort Forms: plural: worries Forms: worried; worried; worrying worry worry46. 45. would v. helping verb for use in a question; request or expression of desire Forms: modal verb wrench n. violent twist; violent ripping; tool for gripping or turning bolts Forms: plural: wrenches wrench would48. 47. wrench v. to pull by force; to twist; to cut off; to distort; to pervert Forms: wrenched; wrenched; wrenching write off v. to disregard an outstanding debt (as of a customer) Forms: wrote off; written off; writing off off write wrench50. 49. wrong wrong52. 51. 222 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net W 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words wrong n. injustice; evil; bad; broken law; transgression Forms: plural: wrongs wry 53. wrong v. to cause suffering to; to behave unjustly toward Forms: wronged; wronged; wronging wry adj. distorted; crooked; twisted; askew 223 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net Y yearly yearly2. Y1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words yearly adj. occurring once within 12 months yet yet4. 3. yearly adv. annually yet adv. still; already; but; in spite of; although yet conj. but; in spite of; despite yield n. harvest; return; produce; income; profit Forms: plural: yields yield v. to produce; to supply; to bear (profit, harvest, fruit, etc.) Forms: yielded; yielded; yielding yield yield6. 5. 224 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net Z ZIP Z1. 3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words ZIP n. extension of an archived file compressed with a special program; type of drive using removable disks Forms: no plural 225 PHOTOCOPIABLE www.english-test.net ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2011 for the course ENG 1201 taught by Professor Mcmahon during the Spring '10 term at St. Mary NE.

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