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CEE2300HW4 - CEE2300A Konstantinidis Homework 1 Name Due...

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CEE2300A / Konstantinidis / Homework 1 Name: _________________________________________ Due date: Wednesday, March 31 st 1. Draw a cartoon depicting a simplified carbon cycle, and indicate major pathways and mechanisms involved in carbon cycling between the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the lithosphere, and the biosphere. Identify pathways where the flux of carbon strictly depends on biological activity. Microbes play a big role in this biological activity. What are the reasons that account for this? 10 points The Carbon Cycle is shown below. Simplified versions of this are also acceptable. The red boxes represent the pathways that depend strictly on biological activity. Microorganisms represent the largest part of this activity due to their enormous populations (e.g., all microbial cells together represent the largest living reservoir of biomass/carbon on Earth) and their metabolic versatility that allows them to utilize almost any carbon compound available to them. 2. Draw the general structures of the building blocks for the four relevant cellular macromolecules discussed in class. Identify and name the functional groups on each building block that plays a role in polymer formation and then sketch how two monomers are connected to form each type of macromolecule. For example, draw 2 amino acids and then show how they are joined by a peptide bond. 10 points
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3. Define the following terms: anaerobes, obligate aerobes, facultative anaerobes, psychrophiles, thermophiles, autotrophic, and chemoautotrophic. You deal with a biological reactor that is performing poorly because an exogenous anaerobic microorganism has overtaken the indigenous microbial community. What would you do to get rid off this microorganism? Explain why. 10 points Anaerobes: Organisms that grow in the absence of O 2 ; some may even be killed by O 2 (obligate or strict anaerobes) Obligate aerobes: Organisms that grow only in the presence of O 2 (e.g., Humans). Facultative anaerobes: Organisms that can grow in the absence or in the presence of O 2 . Psychrophiles: Organisms able to grow at low temperatures and showing a growth temperature optimum of <15 o C. Thermophiles: Organisms with a growth temperature optimum between 45 and 80 o C. Autotrophic: (Lifestyle or Organism) able to grow on CO 2 as sole source of carbon. Chemoautotrophic: (Lifestyle or Organism) obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donating molecules and grow on CO 2 as sole source of carbon. The electron donating molecules can be organic (organotrophs) or inorganic (lithotrophs). The chemotroph designation is in contrast to phototrophs, which utilize solar energy. Pumping O 2 in the reactor will kill or (at least) severely limit the activity and growth of an anaerobic organism because O 2 is typically toxic for such an organism.
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4. Why does a cell need a cytoplasmic membrane (3 functions)? Bacteria and molds typically do not grow in honey or pickle jars, even after their containers have been opened. Why do you think this happens?
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