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study guide - Exam 2-CEE 2300 f Fall 2007 Closed Book...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam 2 -CEE 2300 f Fall 2007: Closed Book / Closed Notes Part 1: Prof. Bergin Problem 1 (20 gointsz Given: A satellite measures blackbody infrared radiation being emitted over the ocean and finds that for an area 10 km x 10 km the amount of energy being emitted is 4.17x10lo W Find: The surface temperature of the ocean (in °C). Assume the emissivity of the ocean is1.0. , A: 12— EA” I A T- (J; ’/‘* ESA _’ £4.1be‘° W/ 1/7 C1” “W3 if bDfiW/‘m ”( “ 10/“??‘3 =29’5K Problem 2 10 oints a) Name three important Greenhouse gases b) Explain why greenhouse gases increase global temperatures Game mehlemMW ék’uvwse hm? avf was” ”A?“ (m CD1. f CAL m ‘K‘omewmfi‘wKrmMVT (mm («Amos We!“ AND N1.“ . (I?) Gamma sneer IMnsmf' fl 6mg“ Tfi’xp 9mm" WE ”\B We Tm Tm: T q) k?) mgmg \Nfimw ”Liamrmm) \ aw Gammon We M7513 fif 7319 Evan» THEE) Hus ”ES-Emu‘ Jame {W wflmm’s‘w mag KWL ”P W Mugue ( T93 E/CN. Be'mgwflc ”New” (fumcasu ma )N e meb offl’fia (En/fix} waQUE» (a) Problem 3 (20 201'an Given: A lake with a surface area of 525 acres was monitored over one month. During that period the inflow was 30 [13's ,with an outflow of 27 f? s ,and a 1.5 inch seepage loss. The total precipitation during the month was 4 25 inches, with an evaporation loss of 6 inches. Find: a) The change in storage for the lake during the month period (in 1?) b) The change in height of the lake during the one month period (in ft) L ’ qzts u 7; G“ b %/\/\~9 V >73 9.3 F v (I? ” AS =CF~ (05-h :Cofr ,L9~+r alM‘X MW“ tilwltuy BLGLF") + m 4. ~1mama»Meow”) Part 2: Prof. Spain K67 Multiple choice- 1 point each. 1. In its double-stranded form, the strands of DNA in the chromosome are said to A) be complementary. B) be held together by hydrogen bonds. C contain the same amount of guanine as cytosine. all of the above. 2. The earliest RNA probably functioned in A) catalysis. B genetic coding. both catalysis and genetic coding. ) neither catalysis nor genetic coding. 3. In redox reactions, the net energy change is determined by the difl‘erence in reduction potentials between the A) primary electron donor and the terminal electron donor. B) primary electron acceptor and the terminal electron acceptor. C rimary electron acceptor and the terminal electron donor. rimary electron donor and the terminal electron acceptor. 4. The three essential attributes of life are A) Reproduction, movement, metabolism B) Growth, evolution, and communication C Variability, growth and metabolism (w' eproduction, metabolism, and evolution A ISH probes are designed to be complementary to (a) ' 'bosomal RNA ') Plasmid DNA C) Transfer RNA D) Messenger RNA 6. The most important energy carrier in all biological systems is A_) Glucose B Starch ATP D) NADH Short answer— 1 point each CvaQ 7. List 3 kinds of protozoa and the diseases they cause. CD 9/4 9 0Q 63 zgzjeulfirz w fwd 0,6 {MM7 FEAé‘g /§4/ [WEE Zzozcfl KW WC/fl fl 2; S/ee/J‘M aka, es; 8. Describe the 3 types of organisms with respect to th 1r strategies for obtaining energyLQ, P 1’5 > ( Q Qmwoé /;L I? [V’ZM get energy by ggi 00(er aw i M CM Cow/{gf Céeaua c9/‘¥21¢a W543 get energy by 042914 < c £4 dgro 77ng4 g get energyby fléovoj Z51 M 24170 9. Where an organism lives 15 its 2 94¢ 23 f , what it does for a living 1s its (7/ P l” 53 Q l a e fwga mama/5 10. Fungidegradeligninbymeansof 0V9c6//‘1 aV ‘3“; “(Q5 f°[email protected]+5\ thepurposeof Qiflofl/Ag @ ci//q [age 11. (3 points) Sketch a characteristic microbial growth curve and label the individual stages. éwnww Q 12. Three major functions of membranes are V079 M bfigz ”7 L75 () Vs Wandw 13. The two eukaryotic organelles involved 1n energy generation are <2 P +53 M and LA—m‘fl— 14. (3 points) Functional groups: Sketch carboxylic acid, amino group, peptide bond. 1 9 J 9'? ““1 fl~Cdflk lefi fl~<rc/XK 4% 15. Briefly describe 3 areas where recent and ongoing evolution of bacteria has important (&’ 9*» environmental implications. 0/ a p [(9.92 weak/m7 /0QS7‘( cx er b. flj/rZLQL/fwe fl/afeoL/fi/ecafo/yra ( 3;”? c' yawn/es ‘3 7 fig/655755 16. Lipids (fats) are made up of three M410ined to a Z ’5 P‘\’ $8 molecule of4LflL4by an #4 bond. 17. The chemical formula for biomass is C 5" /7/? O 2 A/ (the 4 most C\ P is common macronutrients and their relative proportions). 18. (5 points) Using the energy of formation calculate the free energy yield (AGO' ) of complete oxidation of ethanol under aerobic conditions. Write balanced equations and show your work. CZ /~[§ OH 7 3&1 > lcdzf jA/YQ 432 ”37% ‘257 l9. (5 points) Using the reduction potential calculate the AG°’ for the complete oxidation of methanol under aerobic conditions. Write balanced equations and show your work. g1 ( > + 7‘2 ‘ -ng /E/;o#/ go. 55. r 24/833 5 W0 50,3il/ 56/6,er O ‘ I A609» gm fl CEE 2300A: Environmental Engineering Principles Fall, 2007 Final Exam Name (print): 62/ GT ID# I will neither give nor receive aid on this exam: . Signature Date Show All Work, Remember to Provide Units, Answer in the spaces provided Multiple choice 1. Killing or removing all viable microorganisms is called ‘ , Decontamination 3‘. terilization Pasteurization D) Chlorination 2. The most common filtration system used in environmental engineering to remove cysts of protozoa is A) Ultrafiltration Diatomaceous earth and ) Charcoal 3. The final step in water treatment in the US is usually hlorination B) Filtration C) Flocculation D) Aeration 4. The most common source of waterborne disease is A) Mosquitos B) Aerosols Vectors ewage 5. Coliforms are commonly considered to be A) Pathogens that cause diarrhea isease vectors dicators of fecal pollution D) All of the above 6. Why do microorganisms participate in wastewater treatment? ; To aid in their dispersal 6T0 gain energy and carbon for growth To produce C02 D) All of the above 7. Secondary wastewater treatment can be carried out by A) Trickling filter B) Activated sludge _. Rotating Biological contactor w‘ l of the above 8. Rich animal communities associated with deep oceanic hydrothermal vents obtain the energy for their growth from: A) photosynthetically produced organic matter that sinks to the ocean floor B) the heat released by the hydrothermal vents C) endergonic reactions involved in oxidation of reduced minerals fi-om the vents (black smokers) in contact with oceanic waters the biosynthetic activities carried out by sulfur oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria 9. The largest reservoir of organic carbon on earth is A) Petroleum reserves B Soil @Methane hydrates ) Forests 10. Addition of microbes to support bioremediation is called while addition of nutrients is called . A Inoculation, nutritional supplementation ioaugmentation, biostimulation C) Natural attenuation, fertilization 11. In redox reactions, the net energy change is determined by the difference in reduction potentials between the A) primary electron donor and the terminal electron donor. B) primary electron acceptor and the terminal electron acceptor. primary electron acceptor and the terminal electron donor. primary electron donor and the terminal electron acceptor. 12. The citric acid cycle A) deals with carbon metabolism. B) catalyzes the oxidation of pyruvate. produces NADH as it progresses. all of the above. 13. After processing, some of the activated sludge goes while the rest goes to . @back to the aerator / to the anoxic sludge digestor B) back to the primary system / to the aerator C) to the anoxic digestor / back to the primary system D) back to the primary system / to the tertiary digestor 14. Fermentation is the strategy used by living systems for energy generation when . No oxygen is available .3, 0 terminal electron acceptor is available C) Starch is converted to sugars D) Volatile fatty acids are assimilated by ruminants (cows) True/False 15. I In toxicology the threshold is the highest dose of a chemical that results in no observable adverse effect on the test organism. 16. i: The dose is the amount of chemical in air, water, soil or food—4hat is directly available to the body (through breathing, drinking, touching or consuming). 17. I Cholera can be transmitted by water or food. 18. T Giardia cysts are found in most surface water sources (lakes, ponds, streams) in the United States. 19. E Petroleum biodegradation in the ocean is usually limited by the absence of electron donors. 20. F Bacteria carry out most of the biodegradation of lignocellulose in terrestrial ecosystems (—4 21. i Goods and services provided by ecosystems include food, oxygen, water purification, lumber, and carbon sequestration. #1" 22. I Iron fouling is caused by aerobic chemolithotrophs that oxidize ferrous iron. 23. F The main goal of wastewater treatment is to remove pathogens. 24. F The electron acceptors for nitrogen fixation, denittification, and nitrification are N2, nitrate, and ammonium. 25. F In a hypothetical redox reaction involving C02/formate and N03'IN02" forrnate would be the electron donor, and nitrite would be the electron acceptor. 26. l Microbial biomass produced in the rumen is used as a source of protein as it passes through the small intestine of the cow. Answer the following in the space provided 23. During fermentation of glucose the pyruvate formed cannot be a final product and mustbeconvertedto 126/197“e ‘ e hauo/ 01‘ acefire _ (he/”“1039 in order to com/2V 90K 0 * _ 24. Biofilms cause problems in bib {Oct / (r1: , M4 679/ COW/o )7 0M and w- Gaffrcb ft -& VD)“; 9/ 0111(- eafe /H4/0/f) 147‘; (3k) 25. The key macronutrients required for growth of microorganisms (besides C,H,N,O) are E , 5 and £6 . (K [M j of 26. The most important cause of ecosystem disruption worldw1de lS halo / 7‘9 T /O S S a? eS‘WI—e (, TE” 27. Tropical rainforests are extremely important and fragile ecosystems because of high SQQUCI Gilda/gm; ,and £O<>V £011 . - 28. Civil and environm _ engineers can have the greatest impact on human diseases worldwiZy . WW 1'4 0/65“ wave/f. ’ 5;)“ zrDrL‘OM/ @1917 A WJ’Iv‘Qw‘Qf‘v 7W7 0K) 29. The c ge difference that is established across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane (called the “proton motive force”) during respiration as a result of proton translocation creates a form of potential energy that can be used by the cell to do useful work Two cellular processes that rely on this proton motive force are:, ‘ 5‘ ”Men: and won/z . 0)“ QWe w r/ org/90w 4497 e/Ia ,0 r9; 7i—7———M 30. Microbial respiration and chemolithotrophy provide the basis for most of the global cycling of the elements. Inorganic chemicals that can serve as electron acce ors for \ respiration and energy generation include 231 — , HQ; , gs HF , gal; 5 O'f/ and 02. . Inorganic chemicals that serve as electron donors for chemolithotrophs include fl 1 , [U 3 Ee HF , and 31. Chemicalsthatcanbeusedtokillmicroorganisms include C11 [Oi/“49 @Zome and heal} Wfi/f. 697.494 WXKC 6775,42;- ($4- 32. Engineers can halt the spread of malaria by elimination of the vector , c) by JVBM Mj Wan/anal); and careful application 09W“? “WCMJM7 w 762’) of (24 Sec/771.! 42 5 . 3 5 fl. (10 pts) If 2 grams of methane (CH4) per square meter per day are released from the anaerobic sediment in a pond how many grams of oxygen will be required for complete conversion to carbon dioxide (theoretical oxygen demand)? Ifthe average concentration of oxygen in the water is 7 mg/liter (it is replenished by the phototrophs every day), how deep must the water be to ensure that no methane reaches the atmosphere? Assume efficient mass transfer and ignore the amount of carbon converted to biomass. Cflfi- 0161 ¢> COZ+ 1/1/20 - é 3/516. (10 points) Sketch an overview (very simple schematic) of what happens during photosynthesis. Include what happens to water, oxygen NADH, and carbon dioxide. Include the Calvin Cycle (black boxes are fine). (No need to detail the photosystems, Z schemes, mechanisms in the Calvin cycle) 37. (15 points) Calculate the fi'ee energy yield of complete oxidation of methanol under a) Aerobic conditions b) sulfm—reducing conditions (sulfur reduced to sulfide) (Formulate oxidation half reactions and reduction half reactions, and derive balanced redox reactions.) X220. CflB 0H % /‘/?O QC 0.2 +- éQ— ”IL—é /7/7( B 0; Hie—war —3 “AH-20 ilcfi/go/wl + 30a Q 12¢ch +(l‘17/10 AG: 'M/CAE : —/Z><‘?¢.¢377<(o,81—(~a35§ ': —/337 KJh/flw/I ’— - [7?f/CJ/W0/ H \ {E be a“ “<1 fit lo. Chaplet} H120 é Q01?“ {ge- +19%?” 3 0 +73“ +2!“ “‘E HZ E ..-.dH3024 +35 Mao 4?- C01 r27” 3?) _- ’ ,48%’@l§”("0' AG: ~MFAE — (9*?é - a , 57, X7 lat/M 7w fluafions: AG”, =—nFAE.,’ where: A G”. = the energy change under stande conditions (kJ/mol) n = number of electrons transferred F = Faraday constant (96.48 kJ/V) ’ AEO = E0 ’: electron weeptor ' Ea :electron donor pH = -log {H} N = N02" Reduction potentials: -— Redox pair 50’ (V) _“ Free energy of formation: Methanol (CH30H) -l75.4 kj/mol Carbon dioxide —394.4 Water -237.2 Proton -39.83 (pH 7.0) ...
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