100_Chap2a_Chem_Sum10

100_Chap2a_Chem_Sum10 - Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes to Life...

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Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes to Li fe
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All Matter Consists of Elements Made of Atoms An Atom, the smallest functional unit, consists of: Protons: positive charge, have mass Neutrons: no charge, have mass Electrons: negative charge, have no discernable mass
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Periodic Table of Elements
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Structure of Atoms
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Isotopes Same element, same atomic number same number of protons and electrons Different number of neutrons different mass
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Radioisotopes Have unstable nuclei which decays (varies with isotope) Emit energy (radiation) Emit particles Original element decays to another element Ex. Radium 226 decays to Lead 206
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Positron- Emission Tomography a. (PET) Scan b. c. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =kicEH2c6DQI
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Electrons Carry a negative charge Repel one another Z y Are attracted to protons in the nucleus Move in orbitals - volumes of space that surround the nucleus X When all p orbitals are full
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Electron Orbitals Orbitals are where an electron is likely to be found 90% of the time Atoms differ in the number of occupied orbitals Orbitals closest to nucleus are lower energy and filled first
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What Determines Whether Atoms Will Interact? The number and arrangement of their electrons
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Electron Vacancies Unfilled shells make atoms likely to react Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen all have vacancies in their outer shells CARBON 6p+ , 6e- NITROGEN 7p+ , 7e- HYDROGEN 1p+ , 1e-
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Shell Model Shells = (Energy Levels) First shell Lowest energy olds 1 orbital with up to Holds 1 orbital with up to 2 electrons Second shell 4 orbitals hold up to 8 electrons CALCIUM 20p+ , 20e-
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Atoms Combine to Form Molecules Joining atoms requires energy Energy is the capacity to do work Stored energy = potential energy nergy in motion, doing work = netic energy Energy in motion, doing work = kinetic energy Electrons have potential energy Shells = the energy levels of electrons Orbitals describe the probable location of an electron
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Chemical Bonds, Molecules, A bond is a union between electron structures
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This note was uploaded on 10/06/2011 for the course BIO 100 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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100_Chap2a_Chem_Sum10 - Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes to Life...

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