ReviewSection3_energy_temp

ReviewSection3_energy_temp - SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY...

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Unformatted text preview: SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Geography & Human Environmental Studies Geog 101, Our Physical Environment Section 3: Earth’s energy budget and temperature From this section you should be familiar with the following concepts: • The major components of Earth’s radiation budget including • Shortwave radiation budget, albedo and reflection, absorption and transmission through the atmosphere and reflection and absorption at the surface • Longwave radiation budget, emission and absorption both down from the atmosphere and up from the surface • the role that greenhouse gasses play on absorption of short and longwave radiation and storage of heat in the atmosphere (the greenhouse effect) • The net radiation imbalance between the surface and the atmosphere and the role of convection in redistributing this energy • The net radiation imbalance latitudinally and the role of advection in redistributing this energy • The two main convection fluxes; sensible and latent heat fluxes, their basic differences and how the presence of water is responsible for their relative partitioning • The principle controls on the spatial distribution of global temperature including • Latitude, altitude, continentality, cloudiness, ocean currents • How each controls temperature • Defining the effect of each control on • The annual mean temperature • The annual temperature range • What are the reasons for more moderate temperatures over water than land? • Where are the highest/lowest temperatures and temperature ranges found? Terms to make sure you know: shortwave and longwave radiation, emission, reflection, absorption (of radiation), albedo, convection, advection, sensible and latent heat fluxes, continental and maritime climates, annual mean or average temperature, annual temperature range, specific heat Some key figures: Figure 3.1: Summary of b) a) Total longwave Shortwave Shortwave Shortwave major flows of energy in loss = 70 input = 100 reflected = 30 the earth-atmosphere Shortwave system, including (a) gain = 25 Atmosphere Atmosphere Longwave shortwave and (b) loss = 54 longwave radiation Shortwave Longwave Surface Surface budgets for the gain = 45 loss = 16 atmosphere and surface, (c) the resulting surfacec) d) Net Net Net output = atmosphere imbalance of input = 100 Net output = input = 100 100 100 energy and (d) the Latent heat development of Shortwave + 25 flux = 20 Atmosphere Atmosphere - 29 Longwave – 54 convection in the fluid 29 = … 29 ? Net balance = - 29 Sensible heat atmosphere above the flux = 9 Shortwave + 45 Surface Surface + 29 surface to transport the Longwave – 16 Net balance = + 29 heat from the surface to Convection the atmosphere. Figure 3.2. Earth’s radiation budget is unequal due to the curvature of the Earth and thus the incident angle of incoming solar radiation (insolation). The major spatial trend is from a surplus at the equator to a deficit at the poles. How is this energy imbalance rectified and what is the name of the transport mechanism for heat in this case? San S an Francisco, CA. Wichita, Kansas Figure 3.3 Left seasonal temperature patterns for locations from a range of latitudes. Top right, the principal reasons for more moderate temperatures over water than land and lower right, the resulting difference in seasonal patterns for a maritime vs continental climate. Units: Units: °C Figure 3.4 Mean monthly isotherms for January. Black dashed line is equator; red is thermal equator and yellow is solar declination. Can you see the effect of latitude, altitude, continentality and ocean currents? Check out the July example in the text book and also the temperature range map. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/06/2011 for the course GEOL 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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