Geography Study Guide

Geography Study Guide - Geography Study Guide Chapter 1...

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Geography Study Guide Chapter 1 Definitions 1. Geography- writing or describing the earth. 2. Region- a grouping of similar places; places with similar characteristics. 3. Culture- learned collective human behavior. 4. Spatial Model- uses scientific method to make generalizations about human behavior. 5. Place- Focuses on “space”- an abstract location on a map 6. Ideology- a set of dominant ideas and beliefs. 5 Themes of Cultural Geography 1. Region- Geographical Unit based on characteristics and functions of culture. Formal Region- area inhabited by people who have one or more traits in common.(e.g. language, religion, livelihood systems) Border zones- these are used by geographers instead of lines because cultures overlap and mix which makes it hard to determine border lines. Core-Periphery- This refers to a situation where a region can be divided into two sections, one near the center where the particular attributes that define the region are strong, and other portions of the region further away from the core, called the periphery, where those attributes are weaker. Functional Region- an area organized to function politically, socially, or economically as one unit.(e.g. cities, counties, states, church parishes, farm, a university) Node- central point where the functions of the region are coordinated and directed.(e.g. city hall, state capitol, parish church) Vernacular Regions- a region that is perceived to exist by the people that live there. 2. Mobility- Spread of ideas, behaviors, practices, and technologies. Diffusion- movement of people, ideas, or things from one location to another where these items are not initially found. Independent invention- the same or a very similar innovation is separately developed at different places by different peoples.
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Relocation Diffusion- occurs when individuals or groups with a particular idea or practice migrate from one location to another, thereby bringing the idea or practice to their new homeland. Expansion Diffusion- ideas or practices spread throughout a population, from area to area, in a snowballing process, so that the total number of knower’s or users and the area of occurrence increase. Hierarchical diffusion- ideas leapfrog from one important person to another or from one urban center to another, temporarily bypassing other persons or rural territories. (E.g. sushi restaurants in the U.S.) Contagious Diffusion- involves the wavelike spread of ideas in the manner of a contagious disease, moving throughout space without regard to hierarchies.(spread of HIV/AIDS) Stimulus Diffusion- rejection of a specific trait, but adoption of the underlying idea.(diffusion of McDonalds to India) Time-Distance Decay- acceptance of ideas generally decreases with time and distance away from the core Absorbing barrier- completely halts diffusion. (e.g. Taliban abolished TV. in
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Geography Study Guide - Geography Study Guide Chapter 1...

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