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Unformatted text preview: Review Sheet for ANTHROBIO 364: Homology: • Evolved from a common ancestor • Last species that the two ancestors have in common Analogous : • Same function, different ancestor • Similar form, but not because of ancestry – rather need for that trait Derived vs. Primitive (ancestral): • Derived – a new trait that a species has that was not present in their ancestors • Primitive – trait that was present way back in the LCA (least common ancestor) and is still retained Speciation – 4 different types of evolution: 1. Gradualism/Anagenesis – point a to b 2. Cladogensis – adaptive radiation – definitive speciation event a. Adaptive radiation- creation of new species adapting to many niches 3. Convergent – two species becoming closer in similarity – analogous traits 4. Paralell – two species evolving side by side Primate Unique traits: (difference between primates and mammals) • Mammals don’t have 3 dimensional vision – can’t judge distance/dimension • Coloration is an important message tells you that the food is ready to eat • Hand Structure : nails instead of claws; opposable thumbs; finger prints for gripping • Types of locomotion : bipedalism: humans; knuckle walking, brachiation, leaping • Vision : reduced reliance on smell; stereoscopic vision. Color vision, forward facing eyes o Visual area of the brain is larger – 3D vision • Dental patterns : generalized dentition heterodonty (varied dentition) o Functional significance : Incisors specialized for cutting, canines for grasping, premolars and molars for crushing and grinding (18.104.22.168) 1 • Primates live in large complex groups – they have large brains and large social groups therefore they live longer than most mammals Diet: • Humans omnivores (plants and animals) • Chimps frugivores (mostly fruit) • Gorillas folivores (mostly leaves and plants) • Prosimians insectivores Reproduction: • K selection : few offspring; useful for learning behaviors and social roles Care of offspring • R selection : reproduction never see young, have as many offspring as possible (ex. Rabbits) Hypotheses which account for development of primate unique traits: • Arboreal hypothesis states : primates evolved in trees; this would necessitate visual adaptations, depth perception to judge the distance between trees and color vision in order to judge nutritional quality of food. o Discern different foods within the trees with the enhancement of the visual system – larger brain, ability to judge distance o Those who judged distance survived – natural selection favored those with this adaption o Natural selection also favored those primates who can distinguish color – gives a message that something is mature • Visual predation hypothesis : primates already had some adaptations necessary for arboreal life, and once they moved into the trees, primates expanded upon these traits good for grasping the insects, little bugs...
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2011 for the course ANTHRBIO 364 taught by Professor Frisancho during the Spring '10 term at University of Michigan.
- Spring '10