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A&P_Unit_2_Review - Review for chapter 18 1 Heart...

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Review for chapter 18: 1. Heart anatomy: Location and size. The heart is about the size of your fist, with a mass of 250-350 grams. It is located in the mediastinum, the thoracic cavity, just superior to the diaphragm, anterior to vertebral column and just posterior to the sternum. It is covered to a certain extent by the rib cage, and partially covered laterally by the lung. 2. Coverings of heart: Fibrous pericardium, serous pericardium is made up of parietal pericardium, enclosing pericardial cavity with serous fluid and Visceral pericardium or epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. Pericardium —a double walled sac in which the heart is enclosed. Fibrous pericardium —the loosely fitting superficial part of the pericardium that (1) protects the heart, (2) anchors it to surrounding structures, and (3) prevents overfilling of the heart with blood. Serous pericardium —a thin, slippery, two- layer serous membrane that is deep to the fibrous pericardium; the parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium, and the visceral layer (aka the epicardium ) is an integral part of the heart wall. Layers of the heart wall: the epicardium is the visceral layer of the serous pericardium; the myocardium (the middle layer) is composed mainly of cardiac muscle and forms the bulk of the heart; the endocardium (the third layer) is a glistening white sheet of endothelium resting on a thin connective tissue layer. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. 3. Chambers; atrial chambers, their structure: pectinate muscles, crista terminalis, foramen ovalis. Veins emptying into right atrium: superior vena cava (returns blood from body regions superior to the diaphragm), inferior vena cava (returns blood from body areas below the diaphragm) and coronary sinus (collects blood draining from the myocardium). Veins emptying into left atrium: pulmonary veins (enter the left atrium, which makes up most of the heart’s base; these veins transport blood from the lungs back to the heart). The atria are the two superior chambers (they are simple receiving chambers), separated longitudinally by interatrial septum. Pectinate muscles —bundles of
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muscle tissue that line the posterior wall of the right atrium. Fossa ovalis —a shallow depression in the interatrial septum that marks the spot where an opening (the foramen ovale) existed in the fetal heart. Crista terminalis —a ridge that lines the anterior and posterior walls of the right atrium. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. 4. Ventricles: Structure, location and position of right and left ventricles. Structure: trabeculae carnae, papillary muscles, chordae tendinae. Arteries carrying blood from right ventricle: pulmonary trunk (pumped blood to the lungs where gas exchange occurs), left ventricle: aorta (goes to systemic circuit).
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