lecture 10 - Chunking FB ICI AFD RJF K FBI CIA FDR JFK 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chunking FB ICI AFD RJF K FBI CIA FDR JFK 1 Where is the phonological loop in the brain? 2 “No” Response The 2-Back Task “was this letter seen 2 back?” “No” Response M “No” Response P “Yes” Response F P The Search Task “ Is this the letter M? ” “No” Response M “No” Response P “Yes” Response F M PET subtraction: Rehearsal - Mental Processes in 2-back task Mental Processes in Search task Rehearsal Process in 2-back - PET activation in 2-back task PET activation in Search task Brain areas related to Rehearsal 6 Cross-section here Areas active in 2-back but not in Search Brain areas related to Phonological WM Broca’s View: top of head Parietal Working Memory Model (Baddeley) Central Executive Visuospatial Buffer Phonological Buffer 9 The visuospatial buffer • The component of WM devoted to visual imagery and spatial processing • Information can enter the buffer either – directly from visual perception – from long-term memory • Information can then be treated like a percept: scanned, rotated, enlarged etc. 10 Double dissociation: visuospatial sketchpad vs. phonological loop • Behavioral evidence – Brooks (1968) • Biological evidence – Jonides et. al (1993) 11 Brooks (1968) • Two tasks – visuospatial task – phonological control task • Two forms of response – vocal response – visuospatial response • Dependent variable = time to finish responding 12 Visuospatial Task Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Verbal task “A bird in the hand is in the bush” NY NN YNNN Y 14 Brooks’ Experiment Vocal response: Say “Yes” or “No” Visuospatial Response. Point to the answer: 1. Yes No 2. Yes No 3. Yes 4. Yes No No 15 Brooks task interference effects: 30 Vocal response 25 Completion Time (sec) Pointing response 20 15 10 5 0 Block Letters Sentences Memory Condition Spatial WM Task Control Condition PET subtraction: Spatial Working memory - Mental Processes in Memory condition Mental Processes in Control condition Visuospatial sketch-pad processes - PET activation in Memory PET activation in Control Brain areas related to Visuospatial sketch-pad 18 Brain areas related to Visuospatial WM Areas active in Memory but not in Control Prefrontal Occipital A double dissociation Phonological WM Visuospatial WM Prefrontal Broca’s Parietal Occipital 20 The Central Executive • Supervise attention • Planning/Coordination • Monitoring 21 Frontal lobe syndrome • Distractibility, difficulty concentrating • Problems with organization, planning • Perseveration: fail to stop inappropriate behavior 22 Working memory Model (Baddeley) Visuospatial Buffer Central Executive Phonological Buffer 23 Amnesia and the Neuropsychology of Memory Lecture Outline Issues: (a) What does amnesia teach us? (b) Neuroimaging dissociation (c) Behavioral dissociation 1. Explicit and Implicit memory 2. Amnesia 2.1. Anterograde, temporally-graded retrograde 2.2. Impaired explicit, but not implicit, memory 3. PET study of explicit/implicit memory 4. Behavioral study of explicit/implicit memory 25 U n c o n s c i o u s c h a n g e I n c l u d e Explicit Implicit • Conscious recollection • Declarative Knowledge – Recall – Recognition Distinctions between Implicit and Explicit have often been demonstrated by examining patients with Amnesia 26 Psychogenic Amnesia • Relatively Rare in the real world • Due to psychological, not physical trauma • On daytime TV, tends to run in families (The Brady’s?), especially with estranged identical twins or evil double 27 Organic Amnesia 28 Organic Amnesia • Anterograde amnesia – Inability to learn new explicit information after trauma • Retrograde amnesia – Inability to retrieve explicit information prior to trauma – Temporally-graded » Memory for old information typically intact » More recent information more vulnerable 29 Brain Damage in Amnesia 30 Herpes Encephalitis Normal Herpes Simplex Encephalitis 31 MRI of Herpes Encephalitis Normal Herpes Simplex Encephalitis 32 Patient H.M. “Right now I'm wondering, Have I done or said anything amiss? You see, at this moment everything looks unclear to me, but what happened just before? That's what worries me. It's like waking from a dream; I just don't remember.” “Every day is alone in itself, whatever enjoyment I've had, and whatever sorrow I've had.” -- H.M. 33 Implicit Memory Demo: Mirror Reading • Read the following mirror-reversed words as quickly as possible 34 Mirror Reading 35 Mirror Reading Study • Participants – Korsokoff’s amnesics and N.A. versus normal – Severe Anterograde Amnesia (Can’t learn new things) • Methods – Experiment included 50% repeated words across 4 days – Non-repeated words: implicit – Repeated words: implicit + explicit • Results – For new words, Normals and Amnesics improved about the same (implicit only) – For old words, Normals were better than amnesics (implicit + explicit). 36 Non-Repeated Repeated Reading Time N.A. vs. controls Korsakoff’s Amnesics vs. controls 1 2 3 41 Day 2 3 4 37 Tower of Hanoi 38 Tower of Hanoi Number of moves to reach solution Session Number 1 2 3 4 Amnesics 47 42 38 33 Controls 48 42 39 34 Group 39 Word Fragment Completion tru-- 40 Word Fragment Completion -ss-ss-n 41 Priming experiment: word fragment completion 1 - View list of words: lettuce monkey orange hammer nephew 2 - Complete word fragments: --rn-ce --n-ey Some new (furnace) Some old (monkey) 42 Priming experiment: word fragment completion 1 - View list of words: lettuce monkey orange hammer nephew 2 - Complete word fragments: --rn-ce --n-ey Some new (furnace) Some old (monkey) Priming = complete more old fragments than new. Result: amnesics show normal priming, but poor recognition memory. (they don’t remember having seen the words). 43 PET study of Explicit & Implicit Memory Subjects study word list: house dog truck Subjects view word stems: tru-app-rou-- Explicit task: Say the word from the list that began with that stem. Implicit task: Say the first word that comes to mind. Explicit results: hippocampus & frontal lobe activity Implicit results: posterior visual area activity 44 Behavioral Experiments: Double Dissociation of Explicit and Implicit Memory Step 1: Find manipulation that will affect IMPLICIT, but not EXPLICIT memory: Visual vs. Auditory presentation Learn list: (auditory) (visual) (visual) (visual) (auditory) (auditory) 45 Explicit Task Explicit test phase: Visually presented, yes-no recognition test. Result: No difference in performance for words that had been visually presented and words that had an auditory presentation. 46 Implicit Task Implicit test phase: Visually presented priming test. Subjects had to name the word as fast as possible. Result: Faster at naming the word if the word had been visually presented (because the word is also presented visually in the test phase, so they’re in the same modality --- priming results when the word appears in the same modality. 47 Conclusion: One-Way (Single) Dissociation Modality of presentation affects implicit memory performance but not explicit memory. Presentation Modality Visual Auditory Test Phase: Explicit task Same Same (Visual) Implicit task Faster Slower (Visual) 48 Step 2 • Find an independent variable that affects explicit memory but not implicit. 49 Depth of Processing (Levels of Processing) • Words can be encoded at different depths (levels) – Physical (appearance of letters) – Acoustic (sound of word) – Semantic (meaning of word) • Deeper encoding = easier to remember 50 Double Dissociation Part II finger table power trash gallery... Learn list: (a) rate how pleasant they are (b) respond with a word that rhymes Explicit test: Recall the words Implicit test: Priming: fragment completion Result: Depth of processing affects explicit but not implicit 51 Double Dissociation: summary Depth of processing Visual vs. Auditory Modality Explicit Recall Recognition Implicit Priming 52 Types of Implicit and Explicit Memory Memory Explicit Semantic (facts) Implicit Episodic Skills Priming Classical (personal & Habits Conditioning episodes) Hippocampal Region Striatum Cortex Amygdala Cerebellum 53 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2011 for the course PSYCH 240 taught by Professor Gehring during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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lecture 10 - Chunking FB ICI AFD RJF K FBI CIA FDR JFK 1...

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