Introduction-to-statistics-1.4-1.5

Introduction-to-statistics-1.4-1.5 - Introduction to...

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Introduction to statistics A. Bourhim Syracuse University MAT121-Fall 2011 A. Bourhim (Syracuse University) Introduction to statistics MAT121-Fall 2011 1 / 14
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Critical Thinking This section is designed to illustrate how common sense is used when you think critically about data and statistics. 1 Graphs To correctly interpret a graph, you must analyze the numerical information given in the graph, so as not to be misled by the graph’s shape. READ labels and units on the axes! 2 Voluntary response sample (or self-selected sample) is one in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included. (For example, polls conducted through internet or mail or telephone, in which the subjects decide whether to reply or respond). 3 Conclusions should not be based on small samples . For example, estimating the average grade of a course based on a sample of three students. 4 Reported results: When collecting data from people, it is better to make measurements yourself instead of asking subjects to report results. A. Bourhim (Syracuse University) Introduction to statistics MAT121-Fall 2011 2 / 14
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On page 21, the book reviews some facts about how to work with percentages. You are supposed to know these facts. Percentages (Ex. 22 page 25) What is 5% of 5020? 5 % of 5020 = 5 100 × 5020 = 251 . Convert 83% to an equivalent decimal. 83 % = 83 100 = 0 . 83 . Convert 0.045 to an equivalent percentage. 0 . 045 = 0 . 045 % = 4 . 5 % A. Bourhim (Syracuse University) Introduction to statistics MAT121-Fall 2011 3 / 14
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Collecting Sample Data If sample data are not collected in an appropriate way, the data may be so completely useless. We typically obtain data from two distinct sources: observational studies and experiment. In an observational study , we observe and measure specific characteristics without attempting to modify the subjects being studied. Example: To try to determine the average height of 2011 basketball players in USA, I randomly choose 60 of them and measure their heights. In an experiment , we apply some treatment and then observe its effects on the subjects. (Treatment is anything you do to the subjects that might change them). Example:
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This note was uploaded on 10/06/2011 for the course MAT 121 taught by Professor Quinn during the Fall '08 term at Syracuse.

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Introduction-to-statistics-1.4-1.5 - Introduction to...

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