A&P chap 1b - The Human Body An Orientation Orientation...

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Unformatted text preview: The Human Body: An Orientation Orientation Part B Anatomical Position Anatomical Body Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body point Anatomical Position Anatomical Body Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body point Directional Terms Directional Superior Superior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively respectively Directional Terms Directional Superior Superior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively respectively Directional Terms Terms Anterior Anterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body the Directional Terms Terms Anterior Anterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body back Directional Terms Directional Medial– Medial– midline midline toward the Directional Terms Directional Medial Medial - toward the midline Lateral - away from Lateral the midline the Directional Terms Directional Medial Medial - toward the midline Lateral - away from Lateral the midline the Intermediate Intermediate between a medial and lateral structure lateral Directional Terms Directional Proximal Proximal - closer to the origin of the body the Directional Terms Directional Proximal Proximal – closer to the origin of the body the Distal - farther from Distal the origin of the body the Directional Terms Directional Directional Terms Directional Directional Terms Directional Regional Terms: Anterior View Anterior Axial Axial – head, neck, and trunk trunk Regional Terms: Anterior View Anterior Appendicular Appendicular – appendages or limbs limbs Regional Terms: Anterior View Anterior Specific Specific regional terminology terminology Directional Terms Directional Superficial Superficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface from Regional Terms: Posterior View Regional Body Planes Body Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts Body Planes Body Midsagittal or median – Midsagittal sagittal plane that lies on the midline the Body Planes Body Frontal or Coronal – Frontal divides the body into anterior and posterior parts parts Body Planes Body Transverse or horizontal Transverse (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts and Body Planes Body Oblique section – cuts Oblique made diagonally made An An oblique section is a transection through the body or one of its constituent parts that is not parallel to either its longitudinal or transverse axes. or Anatomical Variability Variability Humans Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy internal Normal Heart Normal Normal Coronary Artery Normal Mitral Valve (left) Normal Normal Aortic Valve (right) Anatomical Variability Anatomical Over Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but: descriptions, Nerves Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place somewhat Anatomical Variability Variability Over Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but: descriptions, Nerves Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place place Children with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Congenital Anatomical Variability Anatomical Over Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but: descriptions, Small Small muscles may be missing be Body Planes Body Body Cavities Body Dorsal Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions subdivisions Cranial Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brain the Body Cavities Body Dorsal Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions subdivisions Vertebral Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord the Body Cavities Body 1. 2. 2. Ventral cavity Ventral houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: two Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Body Cavities Body Ventral cavity houses Ventral the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: subdivisions: 2. Abdominopelvic Peritoneal membrane Body Cavities Body Thoracic Thoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity pericardial Pleural cavities – each houses a lung Pleura Pleura Pleural Lining Visceral Pleura Body Cavities Body Thoracic Thoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity pericardial Pleural cavities – each houses a lung Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, Mediastinum and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs and Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart Mediastinum Mediastinum 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. MEDIASTINUM Is the seat for the heart Is & Others which includes Trachea & main stem Trachea bronchi bronchi Esophagus Aorta Vagus nerve Thoracic duct & Right Thoracic Lymphatic duct Lymphatic Parietal Pleura Parietal Mediastinal Pleura Body Cavities Body Thoracic Thoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity pericardial Pericardial Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart encloses Body Cavities Body The The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm diaphragm Body Cavities Body The The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm diaphragm Body Cavities Body The The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the domecavity shaped diaphragm Abdominopelvic cavity cavity It is composed of two It subdivisions subdivisions Abdominal Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs other Abdominopelvic cavity cavity It is composed of two It subdivisions subdivisions Pelvic Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum and Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Ventral Parietal serosa lines internal body walls THE PERITONEUM Dorsal Spine Wall of abdominopelvic cavity GIT Cavity Liver Ventral THE PERITONEUM Parietal peritoneum Visceral peritoneum Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Ventral Parietal serosa lines internal body walls Visceral serosa covers the internal organs Serous fluid separates the serosae THE PERITONEUM Organ in retroperitoneal position Mesentery; allows access for blood, lymph & nerves Mesentery Mesentery Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Ventral Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Ventral Other Body Cavities Cavities Oral Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs organs Other Body Cavities Cavities Nasal Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose to Other Body Cavities Other Orbital – house the eyes Other Body Cavities Other Middle Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations transmit Other Body Cavities Other Synovial – joint cavities Abdominopelvic Regions Abdominopelvic Umbilical Epigastric Hypogastric Right Right and left iliac or inguinal iliac Right and left Right lumbar lumbar Right and left Right hypochondriac hypochondriac Figure 1.11a Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions Regions Abdominopelvic Quadrants Abdominopelvic Right upper Left upper Right lower Left lower ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/08/2011 for the course ZOO 3733 taught by Professor Sa during the Spring '07 term at University of Central Florida.

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