CNS - Gross Anatomy Primary divisions Cortical Features...

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Unformatted text preview: Gross Anatomy Primary divisions Cortical Features & Subdivisions Additional Features Central Nervous System Brain & Spinal Cord Corpus Callosum Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata Central Nervous System Brain & Spinal Cord Corpus Callosum Midbrain Pons Cerebellum Central Nervous System Neurons + Neuroglia + Meninges Central Nervous System Bony protection by Cranial vault & Vertebral column Cranial End EMBRYOLOGY The cranial end of the neural tube is Anterior neuropore (cranial neuropore) Day 22 Neural tube starts fusing Caudal end EMBRYOLOGY Lower end of the neural tube is called the Posterior neuropore (caudal neuropore) NEUROPORES Anterior Neuropore closes at day 25 Posterior Neuropore closes 2 days later (day 27) Sequence of closure of neural tube: 1. Cervical to cranial 2. Cervical to lumbar What is a teratogen Any infectious agent, drug, chemical or irradiation that alters fetal function if the fetus is exposed during a critical stage of development Resistant period: (week 1 of development) Maximum susceptibility period (weeks 3-8; Embryonic period) Lowered susceptibility period (weeks 9-38; Fetal period) ANENCEPHALY INCIDENCE: 1/1500 BIRTHS USUALLY THE CHILD DIES IN A FEW DAYS AFTER BIRTH Results due to the FAILURE OF THE ANTERIOR NEUROPORE TO CLOSE. Clinically: Polyhydramnios & elevation of Alpha Feto protein As a result the vault of the skull is not formed, leaving the malformed skull exposed. Spina Bifida Failure of the Posterior (caudal) Neuropore to close results in Spina Bifida. Normally Posterior Neuropore closes at day 27 What bony component of a vertebrae is always missing in every case of Spina Bifida? Alpha Feto proteins Raised in mothers blood in Spina bifida Lowered in mothers blood in Downs syndrome Arnold Chiari Malformation Spina Bifida Occulta mildest form simple vertebral arch defect Spina Bifida Occulta mildest form simple vertebral arch defect Occulta Meningocele Meningocele Meningomyelocele Meningomyelocele Meningomyelocele Myeloschisis Myeloschisis Primary divisions of the brain Prosencephalon Telencephalon Diencephalon Primary divisions of the brain Prosencephalon Telencephalon Cerebral hemispheres Limbic lobe Basal ganglia Lateral ventricles Basal Ganglia(nuclei) Primary divisions of the brain Diencephalon: Thalamus Hypothalamus Third ventricle Epithalamus (Optic nerve, Pineal gland, Retina, Mammilary bodies) Lateral ventricle (anterior horn) Lateral ventricle (inferior horn) Lateral ventricle (posterior horn) 3 rd ventricle Thalamus _ mass intermedia Third Ventricle Foramen created by Mass Intermedia Primary divisions of the brain Mesencephalon Midbrain Cerebral aqueduct Substantia Nigra VP shunt Primary divisions of the brain Rhombencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon 4 th ventricle Brain stem and cerebellum midsaggital 1. Midbrain1....
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CNS - Gross Anatomy Primary divisions Cortical Features...

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