Fluid & Electrolytes

Fluid & Electrolytes - Fluid, Electrolyte, and...

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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
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Body Water Content Infants have low body fat, low bone mass, and are 73% or more water
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Body Water Content Total water content declines throughout life
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Body Water Content Healthy males are about 60% water; healthy females are around 50%
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Body Water Content This difference reflects females’: Higher body fat
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Body Water Content This difference reflects females’: This difference reflects females’: Smaller amount of skeletal muscle Smaller amount of skeletal muscle
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Body Water Content In old age, only about 45% of body weight is water
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Fluid Compartments Water occupies two main fluid compartments Intracellular fluid (ICF) – about two thirds by volume, contained in cells
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Fluid Compartments Water occupies two main fluid compartments Extracellular fluid (ECF) – consists of two major subdivisions Plasma – the fluid portion of the blood
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Fluid Compartments Water occupies two main fluid compartments Extracellular fluid (ECF) – consists of two major subdivisions Interstitial fluid (IF) – fluid in spaces between cells
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Fluid Compartments Other ECF – lymph
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Fluid Compartments Other ECF –cerebrospinal fluid
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Fluid Compartments Other ECF – eye humors
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Fluid Compartments Other ECF –synovial fluid
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Fluid Compartments Other ECF – serous fluid
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Fluid Compartments Other ECF – gastrointestinal secretions
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Fluid Compartments Figure 26.1
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Composition of Body Fluids Water is the universal solvent
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Composition of Body Fluids Solutes are broadly classified into: Electrolytes – inorganic salts, all acids and bases, and some proteins
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Composition of Body Fluids Solutes are broadly classified into: Nonelectrolytes – examples include glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea
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Composition of Body Fluids Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than non- electrolytes
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Composition of Body Fluids Water moves according to osmotic gradients
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Electrolyte Concentration Expressed in milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L), a measure of the number of electrical charges in one liter of solution
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Electrolyte Concentration mEq/L = (concentration of ion in [mg/L]/the atomic weight of ion) × number of electrical charges on one ion
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Electrolyte Concentration For single charged ions, 1 mEq = 1 mOsm For bivalent ions, 1 mEq = 1/2 mOsm
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Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids Each fluid compartment of the body has a distinctive pattern of electrolytes
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Fluid & Electrolytes - Fluid, Electrolyte, and...

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