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Urinary System - Urinary System Anatomy of the Urinary...

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Urinary System
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Anatomy of the Urinary System Water & solutes move from the plasma into series of hollow tubules ( nephrons ) that make up the kidney kidney tubules modify the fluid as it passes through modified fluid leaves the kidney and enters the ureter ureter the fluid ( urine ) passing through the two ureters empties into the urinary bladder urinary bladder the bladder expands & fills with urine until by reflex action it contracts & expels the urine through the urethra urethra kidneys receive 20-25% of the total cardiac output, yet are only 0.4% of the total body weight renal arteries , which branch off the aorta , supply blood to the kidneys aorta renal arteries renal veins carry blood away from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava renal veins inferior vena cava
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Potter’s Facies Associated with: Renal agenesis Infantile polycystic kidney Bilateral renal dysplasia
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Potter’s Facies Characteristic include low set ears, Parrot beak-like nose and a receding chin.
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ARPRD Note the massive enlargement of both kidneys in this infant
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Horseshoe Kidney Note the horseshoe kidney with a large retention cyst
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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
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Gross structure of the kidney
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Renal Anatomy
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Kidney Structure Divided into two regions: blood renal artery smaller arteries arterioles in cortex glomerulus (cortex) site at which plasmalike fluid filters out of the capillaries and into the lumen of the nephron tubule efferent arteriole peritubular capillaries dip into medulla (part of vasa recta ) afferent arteriole venules veins vena cava Vasculature of the kidney & nephron (1) Cortex : outer layer cortex contains the dense capillary beds where much of the blood filtration occurs where about 80% of the nephrons lie (“ cortical nephrons ”) (2) Medulla : inner layer contains the larger blood vessels medulla contains the Juxtamedullary nephrons , those that lie deep in the kidney
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Tubular elements of the nephron smallest structure that can carry out all the functions of an organ Nephron : functional unit of the kidney Bowman’s capsule : hollow structure surrounding the glomerulus capillary endothelium of glomerulus is fused with epithelium of the Bowman’s capsule; fluid filtering out of capillaries goes directly into tubule. glomerulus + Bowman’s capsule = renal corpuscle Bowman’s capsule proximal tubule loop of Henle descending loop (fluid medulla) ascending loop (fluid cortex) distal tubule close proximity to afferent & efferent arterioles paracrine communication collecting duct renal pelvis “urine”
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Proximal convoluted tubule Capsule space Efferent arteriole Pedicel Podocyte Endothelium of glomerulus Afferent arteriole Juxtaglomerular cell Parietal layer of glomerular capsule Glomerulus (Capillary loops)
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Glomerulus
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Bowman’s capsule
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Bowman’s capsule afferent arteriole efferent arteriole peritubular capillaries glomerulus Bowman’s capsule nephron tubule
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Proximal convoluted tubule Ascending thin limb of loop of Henlé Ascending thick limb of loop of Henlé
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