Study questions test 4 - Q The Endocrine system affects the...

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Q: The Endocrine system affects the metabolic activities of cells by means of what? A: Hormones Q: What gland controls the pituitary? A: Hypothalamus Q: What hormone is required by 99.9% of cells as a primer before any other hormone can take effect, is essential for brain development at birth, and controls basal metabolic rate? A: Thyroxin Q: Besides Thyroxin, what else does the Thyroid produce? A: Calcitonin Q: What hormone elevates blood calcium levels and how? A: Parathyroxin, which acts as termites to bone, breaking it down and releasing calcium into the blood stream. Q: What hormone decreases blood calcium levels? A: Calcitonin Q: Which gland regulates blood pressure and blood glucose levels? A: Adrenal gland Q: What hormones does the Adrenal Medulla secrete? A: Epinephrine and norepinephrine Q: Which gland secretes Melatonin? A: The pineal gland (shaped like a pine cone) Q: Where do T Lymphocytes go and mature? A: The thymus Q: What hormone does the thymus secrete? A: Thymopoetin Q: What percentage of the pancreas is endocrine and what percent is exocrine? A: 99% Exocrine and 1% endocrine Q: What jobs is Oxytocin in charge of? A: Ejection of milk from breasts, uterine contractions after labor, and orgasms. Q: Where is Oxytocin produced and secreted? A: It is produced in the hypothalamus and excreted in the posterior pituitary. Q: What is the only kind of diabetes mellitus that is reversible? A: Obesity onset diabetes mellitus Q: What hormone do the kidneys secrete and what is its function? A: Arethropoetin, which stimulates red bone marrow to produce red blood cells Q: What hormone does the heart produce and what does this hormone do? A: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which is released in response to stretching. This hormone causes a loss of sodium in urine and leads to a fall in blood pressure and a fall in blood volume. Q: What are Autocrines? A: Chemicals that act on the same cells that secrete it Q: What are Paracrines? A: Chemicals that act on immediate neighboring cells Q: Are autocrines and paracrines considered hormones? A: No, hormones are long-distance chemical signals and autocrines and paracrines only act on close neighboring cells. Q: How long does it take for a hormone to take action?
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A: May happen instantaneously of slow and steady (from seconds to hours) Q: What ending do hormones that are based in fats have? Example A: -one, testosterone (these hormones can enter directly into a cells phospholipid bi-layer, while their counterpart, the protein based hormone, can only enter through a second action Q: Which is a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
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