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Chapt1-8Graphics[1] - Levels of Organiza0on in Nature...

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Unformatted text preview: Levels of Organiza0on in Nature Figure 1.4 Examples of Covalent Bonds Figure 2.7b Dehydra(on Synthesis •  Enzymes remove one OH group from one molecule and an H from another molecule and a covalent bond is formed where the OH and H used to be. The discarded hydroxide and hydrogen form water. Molecules of Life –  In hydrolysis reac-ons, the reverse happens: one molecule is split by the addi0on of H+ and OH ­ (from water) to yield the individual components. Figure 2.14b Enzyme ­Substrate Complex Substrate aLaches to the ac0ve site of the enzyme (like a lock and key) Internal Structures of an Animal Cell Cytosol Semifluid gel material inside the cell Peroxisome Destroys cellular toxic waste Centrioles Microtubular structures involved in cell division Cytoskeleton Structural framework of the cell Nucleus Information center for the cell. Contains DNA Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Primary site of macromolecule synthesis other than proteins Rough endoplasmic reticulum Primary site of protein synthesis by ribosomes Golgi apparatus Refines, packages, and ships macromolecular products Secretory vesicle Membrane-bound shipping container Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis Plasma membrane Controls movement of materials into and out of cell Mitochondrion Produces energy for the cell Lysosome Digests damaged organelles and cellular debris Figure 3.14 plasma membrane exocy(c vesicle leaving cytoplasm endocy(c vesicle forming Fig. 3.22, p. 57 Right Lympha(c Duct Drains right upper por(on of the body Thoracic Duct Drains most of the body Spleen Major site of an(body produc(on; disposal site for old red blood cells and foreign debris; site of red blood cell forma(on in the embryo Bone Marrow Marrow in some bones is produc(on site for infec(on ­ figh(ng blood cells (as well as red blood cells and platelets) Tonsils Defense against bacteria and other foreign agents Thymus Site where certain white blood cells acquire means to chemically recognize specific foreign invaders Some of the Lymph Vessels Return excess inters((al fluid and reclaimable solutes to the blood Some of the Lymph Nodes Filter bacteria and many other agents of disease from lymph Fig. 10.2, p.178 natural killer cells neutrophils T lymphocytes mast cells eosinophils basophils B lymphocytes forerunners of white blood cells (leukocytes) ? stem cells in marrow red blood cells (erythrocytes) monocytes (immature phagocytes) dendri(c cells megakaryocytes macrophages platelets Fig. 8.2, p.145 Table 4.4, p. 85 smooth muscle melanocyte! sweat pore sebaceous gland Langerhans cell kera(nized layer! living layer! hair shaY! EPIDERMIS! kera(nocyte! Granstein cell DERMIS! HYPODERMIS! adipose cells nerve fiber! hair follicle! pressure receptor! sweat gland! Fig. 4.10a, p. 78 ac(n myosin ac(n a Sarcomere when muscle cell is relaxed b Same sarcomere, contracted Fig. 6.9, p.109 Table 5.1, p. 90 right lung leY lung 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 diaphragm heart rib cage Fig. 9.3a, p.160 aorta superior vena cava trunk of pulmonary arteries right semilunar valve leY semilunar valve right pulmonary veins leY pulmonary veins right atrium leY atrium right AV valve (opened) leY AV valve (opened) leY ventricle right ventricle muscles that keep valve from poin(ng wrong way inferior vena cava septum (par((on that divides the heart into two halves) © 2007 Thomson Higher Educa0on endothelium, connec(ve (ssue pericardium myocardium Fig. 9.3b, p.160 (Deoxygenated blood) Vena cava → right atrium → tricuspid (“lubb”) → right ventricle contracts → pulmonic valve (“dupp”) → pulmonary artery → arterioles → right and le2 pulmonary capillary beds → venuoles → Reminder: This next part is happening simultaneously (the “lubb” and “dupp” match up since the bicuspid and tricuspid close at the same 0me and the semilunar and aor0c valve close at the same 0me.) (Oxygenated blood) → right and le2 pulmonary veins → lea atrium → bicuspid (“lubb”) → lea ventricle → aor0c valve (“dupp”) → aorta → arteries → arterioles → capillaries → venuoles → veins (and then back to vena cava) ...
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