EXAM 1 - EXAM1 PrinciplesUnderlyingAllScience

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EXAM 1 17:41 Principles Underlying All Science All events can be attributed to natural causes Explanations don’t invoke supernatural powers Do not specifically exclude them, they just can’t be studied using science Natural laws apply at all places and all times People perceive events in similar ways Misconceptions About Science Scientists “prove” things “It is just a theory” Science vs. religion The Scientific Method Observation Something unexpected happens Hypothesis Explanation; if/then prediction Experiment Controlled test; Challenge prediction Conclusion
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Supports or doesn’t support the hypothesis Scientific Observation Observation Flies swarm around meat left in the open, maggots appear on meat Hypothesis Flies produce the maggots; keeping flies away from meat will present the  appearance of maggots Penicillin Fleming , 1920 Culture dish became contaminated Bacteria wouldn’t grow near Penicillium  mold Extracted fluid from mold Fluid inhibited bacterial growth Later isolated as penicillin Scientific Theories A general statement about how things operate Derived through inductive reasoning Has survived thorough challenges Never permanent or final “truth”
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Always provisional Always subject to change or replacement Used to propose hypotheses (deductive reasoning ) Example Francesco Redi designed an experiment to test the notion of spontaneous generation.  In his experiment, he left the first jar of meat open to the air and covered the second jar.  The first jar would be called the ____ jar. Control What are the Characteristics of Living Things? Complex and organized Must get materials and energy Homeostasis maintains internal conditions Growth Respond to stimuli Reproduce themselves Capacity to evolve Characteristics: Complex and Organized Salt Unorganized but simple Oceans
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Complex but unorganized Water Flea Organized and complex Levels of Biological Organization From Most Complex to Least Complex Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Multi-cellular Organization Organ System Organ Tissue Cell Organelle Molecule Atomic Subatomic Characteristics: Respond to Stimuli
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Changes in internal environment Temperature Water level Blood sugar level Changes in external environment Seek food and water Avoid bitterness Plants grow toward light Characteristics: Homeostasis Homeostasis means “staying the same” Cell and/or whole body maintains conditions within a certain range Feedback mechanisms accomplish this E.g., body temperature- we sweat when hot and shiver when cold Characteristics: Acquire Materials and Energy Homeostasis requires energy Opposes natural trend to disintegration Obtained from external source Homeostasis requires physical repair Parts break down and new materials required for repair
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2011 for the course BIOL 1001 taught by Professor Minor during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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EXAM 1 - EXAM1 PrinciplesUnderlyingAllScience

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