Anthropology 1001

Anthropology 1001 - Anthropology 1001 1/21/09 Carl von...

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Anthropology 1001 1/21/09 Carl von Linnae-(1707-1778) aka Carolus Linneus Swedish botanist Classified species using latin Creationist—All species created by God Principle of fixity of species: says species are ummutable/ unchangeable once created by God No evolution through species; not interested in minor variations WRONG Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1849) One of first to see that species can change over time Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics (or Use and Disuse) -Tenets: 1.Individuals have certain needs to survive 2. Needs are met by the use and modification of organs (or the production of new organs) 3. Continued use of organs leads to an increase in functionability and complexity. 4. Changes in the organs that occur during one’s lifetime become inheritable and can be passed to one’s offspring WRONG Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) French archeologist/comparative anatomist Theory of catastrophism- in the past there were a series of catastrophies that caused the extinction of animals in the affected area. After the cataclysm, the area was repopulated by animals from neighboring areas. These migrant animals were similar in appearance to those that went extinct, but not identical. WRONG Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Geologist Theory of Uniformitarianism: Processes that occurred in the past to shape the Earth are the same as those that act today.—Suggested that the Earth was actually thousands to millions of years older than thought Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Essay on the Principle of Popultaion—argued that over time, populations will incease and the competition for food will rise, but didn’t realize that we can manipulate food supply Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Galapagos Islands- finches Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) Wrote similar paper to Darwin 1859 publication of Darwin’s book On the Origin of Species Never explicictly stated that humans came from evolution, but caused huge uproar Never says how a species originates, only how they change Tenets of Theory of Evolution by natural selection: 1.Reproductive potential of a population is high but actual population size remains stable. 2. Resources within the environment are in limited supply. There is competition among individuals within the
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population for these resources. 3. Biological variation among individuals is a normal feature in a population. 4. Any hereditary variation that allowed an organism even a slight advantage in competition for resources will be perpetuated. Individuals with these favorable traits would survive and reproduce. Over time, there will be an increase in frequency of these favorable traits. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
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Anthropology 1001 - Anthropology 1001 1/21/09 Carl von...

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