Exam 3 - Anthropology Test 3 Paleocene(65-55million years...

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Anthropology Test 3 Paleocene (65-55million years ago) -Some species are thought to have been primates, but our authors don’t consider them as primates Eocene (55-34 million years ago) a) Importance -The first undoubted primates in the fossil record -Referred to as primates of “modern aspect” -Of the prosimian “grade” of anatomy -Anatomy suggesting primate affinity: a) Postorbital bar b) Orbits toward the front of the skull (provides stereoscopic vision) c) Relatively short snout (less acute sense of smell) d) Generalized dentition e) Prehensile (grasping) hands and feet f) Relatively large brain size compared with Paleocene species b) Where the fossils are found -Primarily found in North America and Europe -During the later part of the Eocene, species were found in North Africa and Asia as well -Species in North America and Europe are similar to one another in anatomy -This similarity may be explained by the connection of North America and Europe (via Greenland) during the first half of the Eocene c) Environment -Tropical, subtropical climate; forested d) Taxonomy and Phylogeny -Two broad groups of primates: adapids and omomyids -Adapids may be ancestors of lemurs and lorises -Omomyids may be ancestor of tarsiers e) Inferences: a) Based on orbit size; some species were diurnal, and others were nocturnal b) Based on body size and dental anatomy, most species were insectivorous, but species may have been frugivorious/folivorous c) Species were arborically adapted; the mode of locomotion was running and leaping d) Absence of dental comb (toothcomb) Oligocene (34-23 million years ago) a) Importance -the first definite anthropoids in the fossil record b) Where fossils were found Adapids Omomyids Tarsiers Anthropoids
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-Fayum, Egypt c) Dates for the fossils 33-35 million years ago (potassium argon dating) d) Environment -Tropical forest -Fayum site was close to the shores of the Tethys Sea e) Taxonomy and Phylogeny -Two groups of Anthropoids: a) Proplyopithecines – (ex: Aegyptopithecus) have dental formula of 2,1,2,3/2,1,2,3 -This dental formula is the same as that of catarrhines (Old World Monkeys, Apes and Humans) -Proplyopithecines may be generalized ancestors for catarrhines b) Parapithecines (ex: Apidium) have dental formula of 2,1,3,3/2,1,3,3 -This dental formula is the same as New World Monkeys -Parapithecines may be ancestral to platyrrhines based on the thesis that new world monkeys are derived from an African ancestor that crossed the Atlantic ocean on floating masses of vegetation f) Inferences a) Body size – 2-4 lbs for Apidium; 12-18 lbs for Aegyptopithecus b) Diet – frugivory c) Diurnal – (based upon small orbital size) d) Mode of locomotion – arboreal quadrupeds e) Social organization – polygyny for Aegyptopithecus Miocene (23 – 5 million years ago) a) Importance -First definite hominoids are in the Miocene. -These species are classified as hominoids based on the Y-5 cusp pattern
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2011 for the course ANTH 1001 taught by Professor Tague during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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Exam 3 - Anthropology Test 3 Paleocene(65-55million years...

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