Bio Chapter 38

Bio Chapter 38 - Chapter 38: Animal Behavior Behavior...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 38: Animal Behavior Behavior Describes any observable activity of a living animal There are two forms of behavior: Innate behavior Learned behavior Innate Behaviors Can be performed without prior experience Are performed in reasonably complete form 1 st time Appear even if the animal is deprived of opportunity to learn it Example: Red squirrel nut-burying activities Can occur immediately after birth Example: egg eviction behavior in cuckoo chicks Learned Behaviors Behaviors modified by experience This process is called learning One form of learning is called habituation : A decline in response to a repeated stimulus Prevents wasting energy Example: repeated physical stimulation of sea anemones Touched for the first time, anemone withdraws. After many touches, the anemone habituates and no longer responds. Learned Behaviors A more complex form of learning is called trial-and-error learning : New responses to stimuli are acquired through experience Response to naturally occurring stimuli based on rewards and punishments Often occurs during play or exploratory behavior Example: toad capture of stinging insects Learned Behaviors Operant conditioning allows animals to learn behaviors to receive a reward or avoid punishment Used to train animals Insight learning is problem solving without trial and error Sudden problem solving without prior experience May involve mentally manipulating concepts to arrive at a solution There Is No Sharp Distinctions Between Innate and Learned Behaviors Seemingly innate behavior can be modified by experience Example: herring gull chicks come to recognize own parents as they mature There Is No Sharp Distinctions Between Innate and Learned Behaviors Seemingly innate behavior can be modified by habituation Example: young birds learn to discriminate silhouettes of predatory birds as they age There Is No Sharp Distinctions Between Innate and Learned Behaviors Learning may be governed by innate constraints Examples: Robins learn only songs of adult robins Birds imprint only on their parent during the sensitive period in their development There Is No Sharp Distinctions Between Innate and Learned Behaviors All behavior arises out of interaction between genes and environment The nature of this link is not well understood Example: Bird migration breeding range winter range How Do Animals Communicate? How Do Animals Communicate?...
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Bio Chapter 38 - Chapter 38: Animal Behavior Behavior...

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