Feb06_09_TSstructure

Feb06_09_TSstructure - Temperature, Salinity, and Density...

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Temperature, Salinity, and Density Structures in the Oceans
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As you would expect, temperatures are lowest in the polar regions and highest near the equator. Heavy rainfall in the equatorial regions ―freshens‖ the ocean near the equator, whereas hot and dry conditions near the tropic lines (Tropic of Capricorn and Tropic of Cancer) result in higher surface salinity in those areas. Average surface temperature and salinity for the world ocean
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Typical temperature profile at mid- latitudes In deep water even in the tropics, water is very cold!
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Typical temperature profiles at polar, tropical and mid-latitudes. Cold water found in deep depths is the same everywhere!
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Typical vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and density except at high latitudes. Thermocline – where temperature changes rapidly. Halocline --- where salinity changes rapidly. Pycnocline--- where density changes rapidly.
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The Principle of Constant Proportions states that the: a. total amount of dissolved solids in the ocean is a constant. b. salinity of the ocean is a constant. c. ratio of trace elements in samples of seawater from various places is a constant. d. ratio of major salts in samples of seawater from various places is a constant.
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Deep zone comes into contact with atmosphere in the polar regions where heavy cold water filling the deep zone is formed. Density structure of the Oceans
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The Ocean Is Stratified into Three Density Zones by Temperature and Salinity The ocean is divided into three density zones: Surface zone the upper layer of the ocean, containing the least dense water. The surface zone is only about 2% of total ocean volume. Pycnocline a zone in which density increases with depth, containing about 18% of all ocean water Deep zone contains about 80% of all ocean water. There is little change in density throughout this layer.
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Sea-surface temperatures during Northern Hemisphere summer
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Sea-surface average salinities in parts per thousand ( )
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Seawater and Atmosphere How the temperature and salinity structures in the oceans are formed.
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Heating and Cooling of Earth Heating comes from solar radiation Cooling is due to back radiation from Earth to outer space Thermal equilibrium for Earth (Earth maintains a constant temperature), i. e., incoming solar radiation = back radiation
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Spectrum
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2011 for the course OCS 1005 taught by Professor Condrey during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Feb06_09_TSstructure - Temperature, Salinity, and Density...

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