Handout_on_seawater

Handout_on_seawater - Properties of Seawater * In a...

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Properties of Seawater * In a covalent bond , the atoms of a compound share electrons (ex. H 2 O molecule). The angular shape of the water molecule makes it electrically asymmetrical, or polar . * When a hydrogen atom in one water molecule is attracted to the oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule, a hydrogen bond forms. * A covalent bond is much stronger than a hydrogen bond. * Water molecules in ice are held together by hydrogen bonds. * The six most abundant (by weight) ions in sea salts are; Chloride (Cl - ), Sodium (Na + ), Sulfate (SO 4 -- ), Magnesium (Mg ++ ), Cal- cium (Ca ++ ), and Potassium (K + ) . * Elements present in amounts less than a part in million are known as trace elements . * Salinity is a total amount of salts (in grams) in 1 kilogram of seawater ( parts per thousand ). * Weathering of rocks on land and outgassing process through volcanoes and near mid-ocean ridges are the sources of the ocean’s salts. * Salinity of a typical sea water is close to 35 parts per thousand (35 g of salts in 1 kg of seawater). *Although salinity might vary, the ratio of major salts in seawater from many locations is constant. Principle of constant propor- tions. * Salinity used to be determined by measuring chlorinity, total amount of chloride, bromine and iodine ions in seawater. It can be con- veniently determined by measuring electrical conductivity of seawater. * Definition of 1 gram (weight unit in metric system): weight of 1 cm 3 of pure water at 3.98 o C (maximum weight of pure water). * Water is very dense compared to air . Thus, any object placed at deep depths in the ocean, will be subjected to tremendous pres- sure. Every 10 m depth increase corresponds to 1 kg/cm 2 increase in pressure (14.22 lbs/in 2 , 1 atmospheric pressure). At the bottom of Mariana Trench, pressure would be 1.1 ton/cm 2 (7.821 ton/in 2 )! * Three states of water: solid (ice), liquid (liquid water), and gas (water vapor). * Water molecules in ice are held together by hydrogen bonds. When some of the hydrogen bonds are broken (by adding heat), ice melts. As more heat is added, more and more hydrogen bonds are broken, and temperature of liquid water rises. When all the hydro- gen bonds are broken, it becomes water vapor. * Freezing temperature of pure water is 0 o C and boiling temperature of pure water is 100 o C. * 1 cm
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Handout_on_seawater - Properties of Seawater * In a...

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