Jan16_09_History_of_Oceanography2

Jan16_09_History_of_Oceanography2 - A History of...

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A History of Oceanography (Ocean Exploration)
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The 20 th century sees the most rapid development in oceanographic research Modern technological development was used. Military’s role in the development of oceanography. Government involvement in oceanography. International cooperation was needed. Computer technology Instruments and sensors (Electronic instead of mechanical) Satellite technology
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Polar Exploration advanced ocean studies Pioneering work by Fridtjof Nansen a Norwegian Oceano- grapher in the Arctic. He allowed his specially designed ship Fram to be trapped in the Arctic ice, where he and his crew of 13 drifted with the pack for nearly four years (1893-96). They explored up to 85º 57’ N, a record for that time. The drift of Fram proved that no Arctic continent existed. In addition Nansen’s group also studied meteorological and oceanographic conditions at high latitudes
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Other 20 th Century Voyages German Meteor Expedition (1925) crisscrossed the South Atlantic for 2 years and introduced modern optical and electronic equipment to oceanographic research. They introduced a device called the Echo sounder (see next slide). The first U.S. research ship built specifically for ocean studies was the Atlantis (1931). A new HMS Challenger (1951) began a two-year voyage that would make precise depth measurements in the Atlantic, Pacific, and the Indian Ocean including the Mediterranean Sea. They discovered ocean’s deepest trench. The drilling ship Glomar Challenger (1968) set out to test a controversial hypothesis about the history of the ocean floor. It could recover seafloor sediments from depths up to 6000 m.
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Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP)
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