No_teens_allowed_synth_ex

No_teens_allowed_synth_ex - No Teens Allowed: The Exclusion...

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Unformatted text preview: No Teens Allowed: The Exclusion of Adolescents from Public Spaces Patsy Eubanks Owens Patsy liubanks OWens is an Associate Professor of Landscape Architec tttrc at the University of (.‘lalii’oruia. Davis. She holds a Bachelor of Landscape .-\rchitecture from the University of Georgia and a Master oth-tndscapc .J-‘tt‘cliitecture from the Ut‘tiversity of ('Jalil'ornia. Berkeley. At L'CD, Patsy teaches the courses “Social Factors in Design” and “(iomn‘tunity Participa- tion it] Design“ along with other (le- sign studios. Her research on the perceptions and spatial needs of teenagers began in the mid-1980s anti has included studies ol'teeus in Calitornia. “lest Virginia, and Australia. I he exclusion ot'adolcs— cents from public spaces occurs through public policies and design practices.l Public policies. such as curfew, skateboarding. and loitering ordinances. restrict the use 01' public places by teenagers and are increasingly lit-ring adopted by munic- ipalities. in addition. although land- scape architects design places for use by people. a large segment. of the population. adolescents, is often overlooked or intentionally excluded when places are. created. This article addresses the exclusion oi'adoies- cents from public landscapes and presents recommendations [or how designers can respond. These poli- cies and practices are discussed in the context of the connnonly held perceptions of teenagers. tlte con- tet‘npot‘at‘y role ofpttblic space. and the role of the physical environment in the social and emotional develop- tnent of youth. Pmrqtitimt (ifil'itettagrtir Adults. Adolescence is a period ofhuman cle- velopntent that. most adults associate with difficulties and uncertainty. The adolescent is neither a child nor an 156 Lnmivmpcfuttruai 213—02 Abstract: The current practice of excluding titittit's‘t'ttttls‘ jinttt [iii/Mic tart.t1.nrapt-zt is rar- fiiortrt through (I rcvictt' (J'Itittlilit' policies (on! r'o-tmttatt design practices that ntitrirt their tire rifptrm’s'. Priiirit's ttftliflttPti it'tctttrir rtrrfimt rim! skateboarding w‘tiittcttict’s. Design prac- tices retitled trifltttrtypm tif'mtttit‘tittmerits—mtiunrrrirtt ttt’t’ttx, firirtts. 'tti'igltlirirtttmds. rind srt'trioit—m'r tii.\‘t"tt-.\‘.St’(i. The policies rirj inr 'tt'it‘flt and where tr'rtts cannot get together amt design pt‘m‘iicm‘ often do Not provide an alternative. I'hrcxrttttpii-x clients 'tt’qtti’st that designs not Viicoumge teens to hang out rind ('Olttttttm design practices suggest spurring benches intently along rurtlitnmys rather than clustering them trigr’thrrso a g'i‘tlttf) of term can sit. Hem-mtmetirtritimis on from the needs rif'ridoleicr'tits can be addressed Nimitgtt design (it?! dismissed. Suggestions ittr‘iutir' designing (tdnt'esccn(T/iite-ttrity places. incorporation ofynttttt. activities with Ut'itt’t' age groups. (ntrt st-rrttcg‘irsfin'youth. design participation. adult. altl'tough they can act as either. _-\dolescence is more than a biologi- cal phase however. This period of' development has been greatly in- ihtenced by social events such as employment and education reforms ((.)wens 1997). In particular. the ad- vent of" "It-'enagers" did not occur tut- til the 1950s. Through the influence 01‘ popular music, television. and ntmies. it was during this time that teenagers were identified as a distinct age group. The ptthlic perception of teenagers today usually conjures up images oi"dt-‘linquency. violence. or noucoul'ot'tnity (Foster 1994). “Th ages of':-1dolesceuts forwarded by the media prompt and reinforce those images. Drive-by shootings. teen prostitution. and illicit drug use are a few oi‘ the themes repeated in news broadcasts. in addition, more. com- mon behaviors ol'teens such as body piercing, alcohol abuse, and sexual activity, can also cause distress among parents and other adults. “Wren encountered in public. settings. teenagers are most often met with suspicion. Merchants, homeowners. or other well—meaning adults even ask teens that are not obviously eu- gaged in inappropriate behaviors to go somewhere else because it is as- sumed that they will soon be causing trouble. Ii'rttc t‘ift’ttttt'ic Spore in ."ltitiit'it't’tti.t" Liter. Public spaces play an itnpot= tant role for adolescents. Some re- searchers suggcst that tl'iese spaces are the only places that youth can claim for themselves t\-’alcntine et a]. 1998). Lynch in Growing LED in (.‘itits (1977) reported that streets are ex- Ircntely valuable unprogrammed spaces for adolescents because they provide a legitimate place for them to be. Other researchers have found, however, that urban violence scares some youth away from these settings (Lieberg 1995). The presence of youth in public spaces is viewed by some as a form of resistance to adult power (Corrigan 1979 cited by Valen- tine et a1. 1998) and by others as a threat to public order (Baumgartner 1988 and Cahill 1990 cited by Valen- Lmtdsmpejmmtcttz’.l:1—02 lSSN 0277-2426 2002 by the Board ol‘Regents of the University ol'Wisconsin System titte et al. lt—tEtt-lt. i’iet'Ler tl‘JTtit found that hanging ottt llt pnhlie spares is not speeilit‘ to teens ol'par- Iit'ttlarethnieities. hnt is t'otnnton to teenagers in general. lle IJI‘t t!)tl?i(“i. however. that middle and upper in- come teens should hare tnore op, tions for plat'es to get together with their friends such as prirate autotno— hilt-s and larger homes. Bet'ker also tonnd that. men though the num- hers ol‘ tt-‘t—‘I'lag't't's' was low in propot'v tion to the other residents ol'the I'tonsing derelopntents lte studied. ther were the most \‘isilile heeause they used plates at times when others were not present. l'he role ol'ptti)|ie six-tees. gett— eralh'. is changing I'ron't prerions deeades. .\lo longer are the\ settings lot' stmnlanr-otts sot‘ial ttteetitigs (Sennet “377). 'l‘ltese at'tit ities now oerur at eol'l'ee shops, supermarkets. attd health eluhs. I’uhlit' spaces are instead designed to support speeilit' :'t(‘ti\'ities such as transportation th't'te nett 1977) . 'I'eenagers. hot-sever. still want to and need to use puhlit‘ spaees as sot'ial gathering plat‘es (Figure it. Ret'ent elTorts to re\ ilali/e and heatr ti['_\ puhlit' spaees along with ellorts to increase saten in these areas have re, sulted in these spares het'otuing eren less weleotning to teens (Valentine et al. 199le Breihart ltlt'lh‘). In some in- stanres. the revitalization efforts haw taken plat'e with the speeilir older- the ot' rentoring undesirahle users tiltttttitfiL'HH‘. elderly. and teent-tgersl lrotn the area itt question {Franeis [Ht] t). In addition. many "pnhlie" spares are in actuality private spares and seettritr ’t'ort'es ("ontrol who is al- lowed aet'ess to them. Shopping tnalls are ohrious examples of these types oi'spaees: not so obvious are numerous ttrhan plazas that open to tlte stt‘eet‘ but are not open to every- one.” Elwin)?!men/rt." [it/[Heme mt “(Peei- npiimtt. Puhlie environments. or the lat-k ot'at‘ress to them. ean either sup- port or hinder the emotional and so- t‘ial development of adolescents. To heeotne het-tltlty. well-adjusted adults. youth tunst undertake t'ertain de‘trel- opntental tasks. Adolescents mttst learn to be eontfot'tahle with heing alotte. to use their free titne produc- tively. to httild their selllidentity and 3‘ i 44 a as ‘13 & <§ Wavmvfi - «madame «as w» we». , 9. mm mutt BEfi'Kl-l F" m» Méwwgcmm ’35; 9? awnings; um V’fiw .e at m .» an!” 3’: »uammgm : V Figure l. l'hese teells hanging ottt at tile entrant e to BART that .-\I‘e.t Rapidfilt‘attsitl itl downtown l’u'I‘Lelt't'. 1 ant”. ttia in IUHf’t inspired the autitot' to hegin her t‘eseal't'h on .ttlolest ents and outdoor plat‘es. selfiesteetn. to detelop satisii'ittg rela- tionships with others. attd to heeotne produetire tnenthers o1 societr (Lar— son and Rit‘hards ltlHEi' Nightingale attd \‘ttllV't't‘ltItt lttltli: l’ellegrino lttfitt). Appropriate et'trironntents ean ltelp adoleseents to meet these (it‘\'t‘it )plttt'ttttti ehallenges. ‘lane‘laeohs in The Ufwmm' [Jun/i {if (item :iHH‘t'H'rHt (Whit t [iii-)3) I'eeogtti/es tilt" itttlittl'tattt e til \ll't‘t“l lili' itt growing up. She writes that the at'tire and passire pat tit'ipalion in the tiaih lite ol’the ttrhan streets pro— tnotes a gentle transition to adult- hood. Over a quarter ol'a t‘entttr\-' later. :ttlolt-‘seents still need these puhlir spaees itt whit'h Io grott‘ up. but [her (ti-It'll are not availahle. Add leseetus need to engage itt rottrersa— tions with their peers and puhlie plat‘es are the areas tnam' teens ehoose to engage in this at'tivitr." In addition. adoleseents also use puhlit areas to pursue a t'at'ietr oi recrev ational pursuits.l Reet'eational at‘tit'ir ties teat'h youth skills stteh as setting goals and completing tasks. lastly. adoleseents need environments where they eat] eseape and he alone.‘ For some V'UULil. public plates are their only options I'or these types ol‘ retreats. The ability to sit and think about their problems. the world. and their place itt it is important to teet- ing seenre with who they are. Pit/tiff Put'ir'iet mtrt' Dittith I-‘rrm'it'ris Relating {e .irlnhzttwtls ‘ t' in! rifl‘ttin’ii X/mrt' I’irt'rt'ir I’riiirir-s. In t'et‘ent \‘ears, several polities that plaee restrietions on Leenagers‘ use (it pnhlir spaces have inereased in popularity. Curfew attd skateboarding ordinances and other polieies. sueh as loitering laws attd anti—graffiti Campaigns, are being instituted ill ('omnutnities ol'all sizes. These polities restriet' when teens can use public spares. whit'h spaces they can use. and what they eat] do there. The motivations behind each poliey are (list'ussed along with a gen.- eral description ot'its ei'leetiVeness and impacts. (inf/PW hints. Violent t'rimes e: ttnntitted hyjttt'eniles inet' ‘ased dra- matieally during the late 1930s and eat'lt' 19905 (National Criminal lt'lt'ltil. In an effort to t'urtail these crimes and to |)l'(J[Ct‘I innocent youth. 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In addition, skatehmtrding can help voting people obtain greater social competence. interactitms with other skaters and with the public at large provide opportunities [in learning how to communicate and cooperate with others. ()Ihr’i'liltlilit'it’s. Other common public policies also impact the use of public places by adolescents. Loner— ing. gral'liti. and cruising are sortie ol' th 7‘ activities that are banned by cont- Inunities. Although this paper does ttot examine the specitic implications of these policies. thev are worth not— ing hrieily. Mitch like curfew laws. loi- tering ordinances regulate the gath- ering ol'youth or others in public places. Loitering laws prohibit per- sons l'rom lingering or standing in certain public areas. Areas at‘iiacent to schools are often posted with no loitering signs. Increasingly. anti- gral'fiti campaigns oi'communitics are vigoroush attempting to halt the spray painting ol' public surlaccs. in response to a continued increase in gral'liti waiting. tnattv communities have instituted programs ranging from encouraging citiven surveil- lance to the use ol'inli'ared remote controlled cameras {Ferrell limb). Unlike skatebot’trding. where the marrng ol' public property is a byproduct oi‘a recreational activity. gral'iiti writing is often done for the thrill oi'brcaking the law (Ferrell 19115). l'it)\\-’t-'\-’et'. the importattcc to these voutlt ol'artistic expression ill the public realm is worthy ol' I'urther examination. lastly. cruising ordi- nances are removing a time-ht mored tradition of roaming the city streets in the ultimate symbol oi" independ- ence. the car. in many communities. Design Practices in '1 Voter) settings. Design practices have evolved that also respond to the problems being addressed by the public policies described above. These practices have emerged in response to client desires. and more systematically. through the acceptance of crime pre— vention through envirtmtnental de~ sign (Cl’TED) principles.7 Although these practices have legitimate foun— dations, the implications of these practices on the availability of public spaces [or the use ol'adolescents has not been thoroughly examined and considered. This article examines some oi the design practices colit- ntoniy implemented in [our public settings—ctmuncrcial areas. parks. neighborhtmds, and schools—and the importance oi‘those practices to adolescents activities and develop— tnent. ( Iratmtrrcint rtrcm. Downtown ar- eas. shopping malls. and strip com- mercial developments are exan'iplcs t:l'comniercial areas tltat try to dis- courage tlte use by teenagers. Mer- ('lttntts oppose teens gathering ill from ol'their stores because they "scare away" the legitimate cus— tomers. (Iity ol'licials. parents. attd othcratiults interpret thcit hanging out as an unproductive use ol'titne that will lead to delinquency. Design- ers are being asked to discourage the use ol'these spaces by teens when de- veloping design plans for the areas. When the (Iitv til-Stit'l‘illiit‘lllt) was re— designing its K Street Mall. one ol' the ohit-‘ctivt's was to discourage the use ol'the area by teenagers (and other undesirahlt-s] (Francis liiill ). The redesign removed ]_)edcstrian ameni- ties such as seating from the area. In Davis. (lalil'ornia. a series ol' concrete steps located across the street from a video arcade and a pix/a restaurant and next to a parking lot attracted frequent use by teenagers. Although the teens were not directly in front ol‘any- stores or blocking the sidewalk. the (iity decided this was an inappro- priate use ol'the public space and the area was redesigned to include sepa— rated benches. which did not allow the same type oligathcring as the concrete steps. Shopping malls try to create the illusion oi'connnunity by provid- ing a variety olislmpping and enter- tainment needs in an effort to lure customers (Lewis liliiti). Many malls are finding that in addition to attract- ing customers to their stores, they are attracting teenagers to their prem— ises. Open sight lilies in malls ensure that security guards can see groups of teenagers so that they can be asked to leave. Seating areas are designed to discourage lengthy stays. and in some instances. bits stops are being relocated to discourage stops at the mall on the way home from school (Reed 1993}. Strip conunercial devei- opulents also do little to provide for the use of' teenagers. Laura Hall (1903) found in her stud}: of teen— agers in Rohnert Park. California. that even at fast food restaurants lo- cated close to the high school teens were relegated to sitting on the curl) to eat their lunch. Other businesses have also made efforts to discourage the use of their property by teenagers. The en- tt‘anre to the Art Museum at Univer- sity oi‘(lalil‘ornia at Berkeley as origi- nally designed provided an ideal skateboarding challenge. Alter sev- eral years ofasking skateboarders to leave. additions were made to the sloping retaining walls that inter: lered with the skateboarding [Fig- ttres Ii and i]. 'I‘cenagers need anti value these types ol'commercial areas. (1in cen- ters attract youth because oi'the spontaneous meetings with peers whom they know and those they do not {l..ieherg 1995}. Lewis {1990) [bond that this same type of social networking also takes place at the shopping mall. In studies iii (Ialil'ors nia and Australia, Owens {1988 and ISM-ii) ionnd that ct'tmmercial areas were valued by teens because other people would be there and because they could be with their friends. Pastas. Design programs for parks typict-tliy include an assortment oi'ball fields and courts. children's play areas. and open lawn. The activi- ties oi‘teens at parks include com- tnon recreational activities. unique recreational activities. and more so- cialising ((_)wens I988 and 1994: Sil- bereisen 1988). Other than meeting the recreatirmal needs that teens have in conunon with other age groups. park designs seldom recog nize the other likely activities of youth. Many teenagers use park l'a- cilitics in the same ways they use connnt-‘rcial areas—as plans; to get together with their friends. In par- ticular. female teens are more likely to go to these parks to be with their (items I 5 9 l’igln'rfl. i‘mu‘lwin (III..1IIIHI'HILI \ll anlllll.I3<'II.1'I\\ I IIIIIIII Hm. 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Im‘x Im “gin/WWI lIlt' !I('('(I [m I"I|IlIlJllH‘iII In] Ln‘llnuul 11.1% IIHIUIIIIH'II ]:I:'I.III:1«;I.Ic.-(I |)I(_‘(I‘\ lIMl 2w I:3_§IIl/’I‘ liu' Imielm- nuns in \\III('II|£'1'|I\ NIT. \Hllll‘f Hlilllllllilijl'n ILIH‘ IIH Imlm‘I {In-Hy "Ill I’Inx" pit-«m in lln‘ir INII'LHI IIH an: I t'\\ -:I llnm [nytrrIs In In; l'\IIIlli‘LIl'(I Il'IgIm- 3L \tIUII'M‘t‘Ilh |_I\Hl I't IMIH H'l It“- ;l|IH|1.lI .n Iniliz N. \II-n; nil!) spu] I» HIM II .I\ I)‘I\I\‘(‘|I).III LilItI ll'IIIIIN. \x'lm I: III'I' m mum Mmqu In nmny \Imll'n iJrLII‘cIInQ Fun in mm lmr'li: llI.l| |\ l'Ii' jun-(HMm,|lr=1w-I1w \Ilhnuu'n III! HIINIIH Winn HI HI\LlI'\'IHI.I!II l).I1I\‘II\ Iu'l'crminq Innn- I"!IlllilltillllIlH‘t'. 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"!}:||m'|"1m .Ilinm it hwux JIHIIIII «Hm ilmnnq IIII‘I m1- III'IIIII‘II \Lillvlunluling .mrI :‘vaignin; .I( I mcIIIlgIk is IH'I'III'II In .HIHIIILIM‘I“ Ian-a'l IIH‘ «lrnuquxul IIIIH Nljul‘I (Iml iumoirIxnIIIIhl\\\'IIIIHIIn'I-\. \fIQ'Ih’MH/.Hmr{\ ‘Nume- [I'Ntulh I;\'1\ IIIILUII' III.“ um: HI'IIII- l’IIrIIIl‘IHH \\I|Ii Inn-arm rI;1\ <II|JI1I|1~ ix liml lhm .m- H\'(‘I'III'NI:_LI1(‘II I'Irl'.IIII ix III'JVI: I iI‘Iu'IQ IIIIIJI I::'\\ Illmtw l'l‘lllllll] Ill [III-xx Ile.‘i}_;I1ImII1HH(I\ lIl.lI r‘Iu le Imn Ll (Iv IIIH"I I‘lII:s‘!iHn .IIHI .IH' .I\.1II1II)II' in Iit' I I.IIIII('II In HIHIII, I |1I~I.u LnI llIIIIl“ IIIIl'iI film I' E5 ln‘llmln Il'N\I|I .l [armh- IK'III In I'nml ill('[!*1IIt (Alm- ml lIu' I'JII'\'.III‘|1H‘III l].!1l|l.lI .IIHI .i‘LI‘IItlII’ Illl'LII IIIIIII\.IIIII III\H|III'I'\i1'||I m n! Ixm unzu Im .‘nm- HI gnaw-I .mnmanin .nnl II-xs ln-iu-iu-II mum-1- ~I|ipnf |)|lIJII( ~|:;|c'(‘~. In \IJIIllIILIH nc-iggJalnwe'llcunhL mml Em‘w f_1I‘;I\I1}!li‘ IHIIIt'II Imlmw mlin-lmmt‘utAlr'iz-m'lIIIJII190?}: I\'ul lezl I99]: I )\\L-11< IEI'l-I: HiIIu-l— :.'I*~(‘II III-“1M.Ilemvn-I.(Illlmmmilirs I‘\IHIIIII‘IJIIHKINIIIIQIIlt.’|HII1IILIIIJLQR LI\.III.!I)II" .IIIII .llII'.H lin- II) I<-c'n‘.1g<"1~ in rIn-w .Ill".l\. In I «unlmu n13; {Inm- llt'I'LgI'II'IlIIIIIHIr'IN. \nullmmlll l I'JII'T‘I ImlIuI IIlllI Alli-u ( nnlrl l_)Il)‘\'I(Il‘ an Illit'ltrflillf; IJImI' IUi It'k‘ilde‘L'I'h in hmuunu. III;l(I(IIlIt:I1. Iu- Inllml IImI IIII'MIIIIIIINIII HIIII‘HHIIxHUt'H'quutl In] \I§:Ii(‘I'HLIITIIH';Illlt'I Iaia'H II|l_\_[ \-\IIII{' .IINI) ||I.lI-\I|l\__" [Ih' Ht‘jg'III'H'H‘IH"MI-x tnot'c explot‘ahle. Opportunities lor iml'n‘ontptu and iniot'mal gather- iugs and exploration should he inf chided. either implicith or esplicith. itt neighborhood designs. .S'rl'tmtt's. St ltools are among the most l'retptenth visited places he teenagers. l'hc design ol'school gl‘otttttls. more so than other enri- t'ontnents. tlot's consider teenagers as potential and Wash” tIset's. 'l'lteit' the sign ol‘ten considers. lltt\\‘t.'\‘t'l'. how. to control the behavior of the teens rather than how to iacilitale their de- sircd acthities. I’at'ticularh'. hei ause o1 increases in \iolenl lit'l‘ltn'lttt' on school prol'n-rties. designs commonly apph‘ principles [hutul in the ( iPTlCI) literature. lliddett alcores and hliud (oruet‘s are avoided it} the litt'ilitles. Design [or eas\ surveillance ht‘ st‘ltttol ol'licials o[ the school grounds is a priorin These design pt'at tires do little. however. to make Ilte school grounds ['riendh' attd inviting places for the students. l’laces where teens can cotttlortahh' gather with their l't‘ieuds are often ti\'t)l(l(“(l l'ot‘ tear ol‘ uncon- trollahle t‘owth groups. In some situa- tious even the most basic ol'ameni- ties are not provided at schools. (lotnlot‘lahle places to sit out ttl't'lte sun or rain are lacking (Figure (it. Surprisit'tglr. the design of school grounds l]1lt‘(‘(]tlt"!tllt' involves the p;’tt'ticipation ol'the students. Al- though for most this is where they spend the tttajr'n‘it}' oi tlteir waking ltottt's. they have little or no say as to what it will look like or what types ol z'tctit-‘ities the design will tit't'ntlll‘ttt)~ date. Hermittttmirtrtttmtt fr'H' ( Ihrtttgr The preceding discussion of public policies and design practices prm‘ides an understanding of how adolescents are excluded from ptthlic spaces and to some extent the rela— tionship between the use of these spaces ht) adolescents and their ac- complishment of certain develop- mental tasks. ‘While the. problems that these public policies and design practices address are legitimate cote cerus. soltttions that address tlte problems while also responding to the needs ol'adolescents are needed. This section proposes some alternte Figure I, "l I] l'lus" ( Lal'e ( Int “('1 lt\‘ Knutpau tires to these current policies and practices. These altet‘ualhes are hath on selected rest-art lI and de- sign projects that address the proh- letns associated with teenagers in puhlic spaces while also ri-‘spoudiug to their unique use ol'lhese spaces and the (lchlol)tttetttal tasks that thev tttust coutplete. .l(littlestt‘tttnft't'rttttltlr t'Mig‘tt. St ttttc researchers have suggested that areas that are stn‘cil'icalljc designed for young people are typically under- ttsed h_\‘ thetu {Silhet'eiseu lllfid). lu- stead ol'tlsing the designated "plzn' areas." they gravitate to other areas sltclt as sidetrz-tlks and vacant lots. Moore and Young I'ound that the Ina— _jot‘it\' ol'lhe l'it-‘l‘tat‘iot‘s et'tgaged in h\-‘ adolescents do not need specific eit- \‘irtmments—they can he performed in any ntutther olisettiugs (as cited in Silhet‘eiseu 1938). With this it] tuittd. suggestions for adolescenI-l't‘iendlt‘ designs rather than adt tlescent- specilic plat es are pt‘ol'mset'l. The most lrequent activin (th teenagers. hanging out. needs to he provided for itt ptthlic places. \Nlhethct‘ itt (ltJWllth-IJS. parks. or schools. sealing which allows a group .l|l(.llntlgt‘('Htll‘lt‘fl'tlll§|l[l||1ill|.lllt'. to sit and talk cotnlortahhr shottld he incorpcgrated. In (ltn-V'nlutt'll areas. just as designers typically claim side— walk areas for miles. fountains. or plantings. spaces should he designed that Wt Jlll('l accommodate teenagers. rather than discouraging them from lit'tgering. L: tcatit'tg these areas away h‘otu store entries and major It‘ai'fit tlows thlll(l address merchant and pedestrian concerns. In parks and schools. similar gathering areas can he tit-‘Sigl'lt‘tl. Ilolahan (1978) found that certain outdoor spaces at a hous— ing project were successful hecattse the seating arrangement with tahles allmved informal social interaction while also providing a View to neigh- bori ng activities. As the researchers for Kompau. lnc. determined. teenagers also sit on henches differently from adults. They like to sit up high with their t'eet l)l'l')[')[)("(l. they lean, and they huddle. The design of the s )ating ar- eas needs to reflect these patterns. In addition. research has shown that teenagers also like prospect refuges—places where they can sit attd look out and see all that is going on around them while also being out ot'sight ol‘others (Owens 1988). Integration. zttift't. Other Users. Teenagers like to be where other people are and where things are hap- Ummis 101 I a use: M I'ijglll'v Ii. 'I‘III‘ im‘LH' :n‘IuI .ll HIIII Rdllltll] \.liil'\ High HI'IInnI, i):ll]\'iii". (I.IIiIHJ IIIIIV pcning {Lirln-I'g‘ IIIUTIJ. Thin inn-Irm- Iinn ‘vVilil nIIIL-I‘r. i< nlsn lll‘('t'5Mll'}' I'nI' nn :IIInIvnI'r-nl‘n inc c‘t-ssl'nl ('It“\l"iH[')- Inc-‘nl inln an il<illil. I‘In'x Ht‘t‘ti np- Ptll'llllliiii'h In l')li|'IiI‘i]Jli[(' in [he 2I(ln|l \\‘I)l'i(.I;l1l(I LHII‘III'II II'wnIuII'nm [iiéll plil'lifipillinl] (Niglningnlr :Inrl VV'nh-‘I'I'Inn IIIIII’II. I‘ln- iIn'uI‘pnInIinn nI‘nenIing kll't'ilh :Ix Iit‘NFJ'Ii'it‘d lli)()\(:' I HIIIII Im- nnL- mums: nI :Illnwing :Iml (‘IlI'Ulll'EIg* ing IL-I-nngm‘s In n~‘.(-- pnhIiI‘ spun-w; \\'i](‘]‘(‘1"JIi1(‘]“€ill‘f'nifiu pry-Han In {Id— rIiliuIL WI'H'H sl'n't‘ifit' Ihciiilit'h‘ iil‘t‘ (It‘- N’ignml I’ni' ynnth. IIIH' ahnnld be In- I‘IIIHI Clnsc II) IIII‘iIilim IIIIII Hlilt‘l'h wiil hr using. Fm“ I‘x.;II'nplt'. inslvud nI harming ll ('{JllllllllllilV skailc‘pm'k in [he il‘l(ill\'[l‘i;-II \(‘t'lilJll ni‘lnwll IIII' uwm‘ {mm :11] (MIN I'I‘Fll‘fllinliili ;'I('Ii\'- iliI'n‘I t-‘I'Ii'n‘IS In infln‘prn'alt‘ IIIE‘ (Iv— ).ig‘n illln ‘.l IzII‘g'C‘I' ('lllllllllllliL)-‘ park \\'iIL'I'L' Item (‘1 rIIIII 511- and In“ sm’n In Ulilt‘l'S wnLIId CIIInuI‘LIgC. ill :1 mini— mum. passive iIIIrI‘;-I('Iinn. iinn’h I’rn'lir'i/,Ir1iirm in [)m'igw, :\I— lIInIIg‘II many (lcsign ]}]“.I(fliti(nl('l"~‘ illVUi‘v’l“ anIIII in III'sigII derision making. [[19 ilnpnt‘lzun'c' uililis iII- voh‘cnn‘nt wnI'ans discussion. All Inn ulIt‘n. L‘iEiIt’I' I'}t‘('ill15(‘ (JE' IIH’ Iimu ('HHhIl'Hil'lI‘i. luck nl's'kiIIR Ul' luck 01' iIIIE'I‘c'SI. (FiIhfl‘ I'm [ht- pm'l nil LI'IL‘ (Ii-‘- signcr ul‘ Lin.- l'IiL'HH yunIiI are 1101. in— \‘UIYCd in decisiu nm regarding places [02 Lam!“(Aprilviurnm' lil‘ll [hm nill Ilt' nwing. linl'nrlnA IIHII'I}. [Ilia (IL‘IliL'H IIH‘ Iir'aignr‘l \‘Llill- Lliji‘.‘ L'nnn iinninm In IIII‘ (It-sign :nnl iI JiINU clan Iillit' IU hIIiId '.l wnhr‘ nl' n\\lH'l"-iili}) znnl I't‘H])<)!l\ihiiil\ WiII] IIIl' \nnlh. HDKII'I [IIIHIJ IluS prnpnsctl lil;i[<'ilI!t‘l‘Iil1\{>i\'t']llt‘l1l in li'll'"{i('* sign ])l'HLL'S\11[1(I nngnin‘u’ [it‘l'iHiHlH I'I‘Iglling In prnivcls i|1(‘|‘t‘&.1.\t‘fi.i pmu M)|l.\ \‘L‘HSt' nimliisiilt'linn Irwin Using Iln' plm't' and aim Innkm II'It-In iI'L‘I iiiu‘ IIII‘ pilli'l' iII'Inngs‘ In liII-‘I'II. [tlml nppnrtunilim’ vxisl Em iln'nlv- in}; \‘nnth in IIn- rII's‘ig‘n ni‘arhnni gm Illll(i\ unrl I'rrIinn l‘t‘Cl'Cllljun liu'ili- lic‘h. I)llI (,I[J[)Hl'lllllili(’3~ sIInIIIII also In- sungln I'm im-nlying _\I)Llli| in Izn'gL-I' ('nmmunily {1(‘L'ihiflll‘x‘. lixnmpitx-e nI' \'UlllIl ill\‘(1i\'(.‘ll](‘lll in pI'niI-(‘IH rang- ing from rinwnlnwn ('lc‘aign III-('isinns In ('in-wirlt- gvnI-I'III plans .s‘hnnirl he \nllgill. ('irmriminn .\Iii'llll1}_‘"i1l'('S('hll‘('iIifii](’(’(I('LIIU hours-r lllNiC'l'hli-IIKI IIIE‘ {—I'I'H‘I ul'llu" [Jilyuicul t‘llV'il't’alHHClll nn Ilu" (lcvci- (.JlJIHL'lll'di prncussm UI'IIIIUII'SI'CIIIS. [his amid? [)l'()\'i(iPh :In inn'ntlnmiun. In piil'lit‘llim'. i1 (Imus l'lIIt‘IIIiHIl 1n Iiw UPI)(1IIIIIIIIII'\§(II (Irwigning '.I publiu: I'c-‘IIIIn III.” is InnI‘I' \\‘I‘|I Inning; In urin- it"‘x‘t't‘lllx. Minn Hi Iln‘ ('IIIIIIII 1.x Ilsmn‘i— IIIITI \\'III'I :ltitlik‘fl't‘lllh‘ I|I;II I'In'n-nlh cu'I'In in llnrw Plliliit' xr‘ll'inp ;ll'l' n I‘I"-llil ni pInII-x nnl Irvine, llH(‘(i nu Ihm nI-‘m iIIIL-IIIlI-(l. I’I‘I'IIIIps iI'IIn- in, |('|I(i(’fi1|hl‘()i.l Iliklk‘i‘Il‘II‘ilItitfti [in- “It ini 2IIIII II‘I'I'I'IIIIIIIIIII :It'lix'ilit‘s nl ICCHN'. IIn’-\_ Wnllid III: .II I'I-pn-Il in— \It'ili'i nihnnm'Ii. \'\‘ilh Iimc. III(' III" \ign nI Illll‘ Ilmvnlnu'nx. parks. III-ig‘l'lv inn [Inme nnIl .\( inmik Inn) I-xnII’I' ilum glllrlniflilllu' 1H (,‘HHII'UI [ilt' hr- II.I\iuI'niiuiinlt'm'vnlx in lilt“H(' Nl'I- ling»- In c-nrnnl'uging [ilI‘il' m IIVIIIL'N, Hit-W I Iii-I llu- i)l|illlh\l'\lli IiLi\ pain-I. Illi|!|('\(€'iII i» {INE‘II Illlt‘l‘ Ililllul'iiiih will] II’¢.'H.I'_'L‘I \nnl \lIllli] .IIIII gt'III'I'JIh I'I,‘il l'\ In INT-um.» \\|n) IIII‘ If In [5 \:.'.n'~n|1i I'III'JIII prtH nI liliH EmpI-I II'iI‘I JUIJIIIIJI'Illt‘KIIlslI.lI'I'II\-\:l!I‘IiI|1IIIJILIQVTIII‘ Jllilliil .Iy‘I'III It‘N \lll iI .l‘~ 1 ilk (HIIIIH. 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Iii.“ le‘RII-Il‘w nl lin- Innn_\' plnc r-~' IIInI “1‘1! “L’Ji'rx‘ :m' lnl' ml inimnu with lln-n I'I‘wnrlx ( .III |>I'!nIIm|iIIL\IIL|I Il’17:()\\‘"}l‘lIFIHHHIHI |'";# I: .IIIII Hillu-I'I-iwn .nnl Nun: k IIISHI ‘II iile' [)I'U [TI-111;; I'¢.'iI‘I‘I‘T]¢.‘L‘\ .Iiuh pl I |\illl' I'\- .IIIIIJil'\IIi|]ill(l'\\\'i1('ll'.lliHil'Nll‘llIS I'nnIiIIc I Ihrw In II'.||IHII;II m !I\'!IIL“‘I .7, I'xznnplrsnl IIII’H'I\'i'l[‘\llil‘l]\|]1l|!|||l‘:|l\ IInI iu' I|J|I|l(I iII iit‘HI‘W. In'fiI” MI \niik. M“ Huh: '3’. I..ITII.::hl.<'t. ML. Iil“~ll'|. N.. .‘L- Lill— (J‘IIt'I. Mil. i “'88). "‘Wv'ui IiLn' In h'il \‘un i.iiiiIiH‘l'llN\Iit'u'hni i.lit' in \‘I’I-Mpan‘ I..IIiI(n— nix” S'nnu'f luri'nfi‘|;IIIII:1I'\7|—'I-|)I'II.II'\ 1972 II: [\mpcln I IIIEII I; .Ian ( lur‘ns I IEJN‘i .‘t I'J‘JII, ii. FHI !u| liar-r IIIH'II'WiIIII. \{1' ( Inn-n3 L’III‘III. 7 I‘m .In t'\i|ll1!li£‘ nl IIM‘w In Iln I}||c’§_ irr' (i .1n\\r-. 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New Yo] L: Rnnllrclgl‘. "11C. (.111'1'911‘ L111» Hn‘m‘k I)1 111'11." .1(.'1’.( ' I‘rm {{J-Ir'rmxs, Urlnher 2‘). 19911. 1"L"I'n'11._]. 11111."). "l'l‘hul'l (311111111: 1 21‘1I1'1L'. (:tll'l- n‘nl. 111111 Rmislum'v." 11111111 .‘a‘m'u'n 27 1 I 1: Tum. ' FUSH'I'. 1). 15151-1. "'1’111-1Hu-11svi:Adnh'wvxn't'." I'm.- .1'11‘r1.r1'r1.‘_]u|\ .',-\ug'u%l. pp. 511751}. me is. M. 11111-1. "A1.;1I111:('21|)t‘|"~P1611 1111' LC!“ 119511411." .1mm'mm f'hn'firH11H!‘1.11‘.Jl11\. 2|. , 19%|]. “'1111' Making 111'111'111111'111lit' $11'c-Hx."111A.\-’.3111111111111 (111.: I’nblrr‘ 511-1141er l'm'u'u 13w. va ‘ml'k: (311111111- biu Uniwrsily Press. H1111. L. 11.193. Wv'rmg't‘r‘x‘ 1H Hufmrbiw: .1 ($er S'Imh‘ in n (.‘nfglm‘niu Suburb. L'npuh- 115111-11munusn'ipL IIHIH‘. R.T.._]r. 11184. Humming.‘Vvighhnn'nmn' Siam? with I‘m/111‘. 121111 (-11.1. New York: VanNormandlit-111110111. Hulnlmn. (-31]. 19711. memrrmw.‘ um! 111110111". New York: Pirnum 111139.. jucrlhmj, 1963. 71.10IJ/pumfllmth u] (hrnera-r- izirm (1111111. New Yul'k: Random llnuw. Kirslmil. (2.11;. Hum. \L 11111] Ri: 111111111. M.H. 11181] "I'Iw Spnrling 1111': .‘\l1|11'11t' Ar- liVilit‘S During Eurlv Adnlflhl than" [111117 rm! 1;] 11111111 mm’ Adrn'vw'mhir 111: [3111—1315. Km‘pulu. KM. 1991. ".~\(l{1|csu‘111.~" .111(1.‘»\tlu|l.~1‘ Famuu'itc Places." In T. Niil. M. Ruudi ‘erpp. K. 1.1”; {1115.} Ifnwilmmu'nf mm’ 5mm! Urmr‘n'n'fmu’flr: I’v'rir'r-‘u'dium 1511111113111— 111's! {10111111111qu in linzrn'rlmm-Hlm' Pwr'hm'r qgm pp. 713—8111111111”. 1.1113011. R. 11ml Rirlmrds, M. 15189. "11111'0dnt'- liml: Th0 Changing Lill' szlt'v {11' 15.21111 Arlt Ilt’m't'llrt’.”jrmrrm.’ 11f 1?:11Mnur'1.-1z1rr- Ie'sr'r'rrr'r’ Ih' (13): Sill—F1119. 1911111111. R. lEI'Jh'. "Shun-111'1111-1"Xm'rrmu'uln ,\"r';1'\ 371111111111. :\11;.qu1 '37. pp. 20725. 1.1.1113. (1.11. 1115)“. 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Lamivnfu‘ mml 1 firm: I’I’rmniugf‘sgil 134 Iliii. 1 [1'91'11-1-11 1‘1;1u‘~.i|1Sunshine..\us- lrulia: len .11111 Now." (211111111111 '1 1211111— mrmrr-um I [(1): 2E12-21|5L ——7. 111311. "Natural Lusulanw. Gathering l'lm'm. :11111 l'rmpL-m Rt-lugcs: (11111111:— loristim11101111111111' Plum-s \"11111011111 I'm-1H." fiftiMn'H '1 12311-1111111111-1111 (gum-1.1111- 5121:17fi‘14. Rn-rl. I). 1993. "Mall S11v5 Tt't‘lmgt‘l'nIl1lil111- 11.111- Shopper's." firm Frrmrimx (5111111111112 Nnu'lllln'r 112. .‘it'hinlldi. \'. 1111111. M»I’rmm't'n.jrn'lluw-wu'r (5mm: Frhrmu \' |. 1wwu‘.11t-1‘es1'.L-m11.11Lfilmy 11619941 7111111.]. (“1. 51111111111; is [110 Ii).- L't‘lll1\-L‘ [Jirn‘tul' (111111: (1111111 unjuw- 11111: and (Iri111inul_[L1sliL':'. 11 11011711111111 puhlit' Imlin‘ (ll'fifll'111i11100 with 1'11111‘05 in H.111 |-'1".lnt'ism 111111 \-‘\-';1511111gl.un. 1').(I.: 5(‘ill1t‘ll. R. 1977. TWP 1'11” Hf PMth Man. NL'W \En'k: .-\ll|'1'(l .-\. Iinnpl. Si1111‘1'1'i3-11'11. 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No_teens_allowed_synth_ex - No Teens Allowed: The Exclusion...

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