sample and reading

sample and reading - Partial Chronology of Modern Chinese...

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QING DYNASTY 1644-1911 1692: Kangxi emperor welcomes Jesuit missionaries to the Manchu court in Beijing. I792-4: Qianlong emperor receives Lord Macartney's embassy to China. 1839: The Qing official Lin Zexu destroys 20,000 chests of British contraband opium, leading to the First Opium War between Great Britain and China. 1842: The First Opium War ends with the Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking), which establishes five treaty ports (Shanghai, Ningbo, Xiamen (Amoy), Fuzhou (Foochow) and Guangzhou (Canton) and surrenders Hong Kong to Great Britain. 1845: The Sino-American Treaty of Wangxia extends Americans trade privileges in the treaty ports, allows purchase of land for Protestant churches and missions, and establishes extraterritoriality (exemption of foreigners from Chinese laws). 1850-64: Taiping Rebellion, led by Hong Xiuquan, the “younger brother of Jesus Christ,” leads to immense destruction and loss of life. Barely suppressed by the Qing. 1856: Outbreak of the Second Opium War. 1858: Treaty of Tianjin (Tientsin) opens more cities to trade and foreign residence and the establishment of foreign embassies in Beijing. 1860: Chinese non-observance of the Treaty of Tianjin leads to occupation of Beijing by Anglo-French armies who destroy the Imperial Summer Palace. 1894-5: Sino-Japanese War. The Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) cedes the Liaodong peninsula and Taiwan to Japan in perpetuity and permits Japanese to reside and trade in China. Young radicals, including Sun Yat-sen, organize revolutionary anti-Manchu secret societies. 1898: European powers ‘carve China like a melon.’ China is forced to grant a 25-year lease to Russia on Lushun (Port Arthur) and the Dalian (Dairen) peninsula. Germany acquires Jiaozhou (Kiaochow) Bay. France demands a lease on Guangzhou (Kwangchow) Bay and Britain obtains a lease on Weihaiwei for as long as the Russians remain in Lushun and on Hong Kong's New Territories for 99 years. The Empress Dowager Cixi ends the Guangxu emperor’s `Hundred Days Reform, ' an attempt to strengthen China, imprisons the Emperor in the palace, and eventually has him killed. 1900: The Boxer Rebellion, an anti-foreign peasant revolt, leads to a siege of the legation quarter in Beijing, which is finally broken by an international force. The Dowager Empress and the court flee to Xi'an. 1901: China is forced to pay massive reparations, the Boxer Indemnity, to the foreign powers. 1905: Imperial civil service examinations are abolished. 1908: The Empress Dowager dies and the 2-year old Pu Yi is proclaimed emperor. 1911: Xin hai Revolution: the Qing dynasty is overthrown. Nanjing becomes the national capital. REPUBLIC OF CHINA 1912-1949
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course HTM 531 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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sample and reading - Partial Chronology of Modern Chinese...

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