HUM_531_Review_Sheet - Review Sheet for Final Examination...

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Review Sheet for Final Examination Humanities 531: Images of Modern China Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) Last imperial dynasty of China, ethnically Manchu rather than Han; beset in its last century by military and economic aggression from England, France, Germany, Russia, the US and Japan. First (1839-1842) and Second (1856-1860) Opium Wars . Wars in which China resisted britains’s illegal trade in opium but was defeated and forced to concede territory (including Hong Kong, parts of Shanghai, and the coastal treaty ports) and legal rights to foreigners in China. The Unequal Treaties were the treaties, unfavorable to China, that ended these wars. Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864): a massively destructive civil insurrection that laid waste to much of central China and nearly toppled the Qing; led by Hong Xiuquan, the charismatic leader of a hybrid Christian movement. Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901): anti-foreign violence led by a grassroots peasant army, the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (Boxers). Subdued by an allied European invasion. Dr. Sun Yatsen : (1866-1925) leader of the revolutionary movement that overthrew the Qing, and first president of the Republic of China. Quickly forced to step down by militarist leaders who dominated Chinese politics until they were subdued under the authority of General Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) in the Northern Expedition of 1926-27. May Fourth (New Culture) Movement : (about 1915-1926) a reform movement of anti- imperialist but Western-influenced students and intellectuals who wanted to transform Chinese culture by rejecting Confucian thought and institutions and promoting science and democracy. They advocated the replacement of classical Chinese with vernacular Chinese, women’s rights, the abolishment of the traditional family. The most dramatic manifestation of this movement was the demonstration of May Fourth, 1919, against the failure of the Versailles Conference to return German-occupied Chinese territories to China after Germany’s defeat in WW I. Republican Period (1926-1949) : a period characterized by a functioning authoritarian national government led by the Guomindang (Nationalist Party) leader, General Jiang Jieshi. It began with his defeat of the warlords that had dominated Chinese politics since the fall of the Qing, and gradually lost strength and support because of its perceived failure to resist the Japanese invasion and occupation of most of China by 1937 (the Pacific War (World War II), which continued 1937-1945. ) The Guomindang carried on a continuous effort to suppress the People’s Liberation Army of the Chinese Communist Party , but was finally forced to abandon mainland China for Taiwan in 1948, where Jiang and then his son maintained a government of the Republic of China in 1
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exile. Lonely Island period
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course HTM 531 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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HUM_531_Review_Sheet - Review Sheet for Final Examination...

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