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TWS 22_Midterm Study Guide

TWS 22_Midterm Study Guide - TWS 22 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE...

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TWS 22: MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE History/Notes: Pre-Columbian times (16 th -19 th Century): Latin America before European descent upon lands Modernization & Neo-colonization o Being politically independent and run the same in this manner, but economically controlled by another more powerful nation Maya, Inca (Chile), Aztec (Mexico), Destruction of the Indian race: Caste System: Spaniards, Criollos, Mestizos, Mulattos, black slaves, indian Argentina o 1810 Indpendence o Civil tensions between the federation of Candillos (mostly farm workers) and Centralists, who wanted Buenes Aires to be the central government 1868-1874 Sarmiento becomes President; Centralist Referred to as a “gaucho”: a symbol of “backwardness”; one who traveled with cows, o Argentina moves from beef producing to wheat producing Formation of fences all around the country “gaucho” becomes renown national symbol o Southern European immigration from the end of the 19 th C –early 20 th o Posadas: tropical rainforest and source of work for contract workers Mexico (Pre-Columbian) o 1260 Aztecs arrive in Mexico; nomadic o Toltecas hire mercenaries, the Aztecas. Aztecas learn Tolteca culture. Toltecas flee and Aztecas join the Texcocos. Aztecas conquer all o Chichimeca, Tolkacas, Texcoco (Tenochtitlan, a fantastic city), By 1500, Aztecs are the ruling group Rule by a tributary despotic system: all the defeated nations could run the same way they had been politically, economically, and socially, but had to provide men for a human sacrifice to their god Hutzilopochtli “blossom games wars” One defeated group, Tlaxcaltecas, refused and fought the Aztecs o 1519, a Cuban leader sent ships to explore the new land, but didn’t want to send Cortez. Cortez however found out, and decided to embark. Cortez acquired a slave who learned about Malintzin culture (a tribe in Mexico). The slave was named Malintzin, translated in Spanish to “malinche”, or traitor because of how the slave was a traitor for helping Cortez Mexico (Nation-building) o 1810-1821 there are many uprisings for independence from the Spaniards o 1823 the Mexican state is created o Tension between conservatives and liberals and war (1857-1861) Conservatives: wanted oligarchy; and control in the hands of the government, church, and land owners Liberals: wanted a nation-state system, secularization Liberals won
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Nationalized all church property, eliminated church priviledges, separated the church and the state o
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