Lecture 20-IslesFragmenation

Lecture 20-IslesFragmenation - Biodiversity Endemism and...

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Unformatted text preview: Biodiversity, Endemism, and Island Biogeography Elements of Ecology: Chapter 19; 26; 28 http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2006/05/060521103348.jpg http://www.flchams.com/inventory/Wuerffel(2).jpg Biodiversity • Variety of plants and animals on earth • Genetic diversity contained therein • Variation within communities and ecosystems Biodiversity: Importance • Products: – Food – Timber – Flowers – Fruits – Nuts – Fish Biodiversity: Importance • Resistance to disease (crops) • Higher yield varieties (crops) • Food (new plants) • Medicines http://www.dirtbrothers.org/college/teosinte003a.jpg Biodiversity: Importance www.solutions-site.org http://www.farmingsolutions.org/images/no/no_pot2cip.jpg Biodiversity: Importance • Ecological services: – Pollination ($14 billion+ U.S.; honeybees only*) – Water purification – Flood/erosion control – Air production/purification – Soil fertility/nutrients – Decomposition * http://lists.sonic.net/pipermail/pollinator/2006-May/000283.html Biodiversity: Importance • Aesthetic value • Cultural heritage • Artistic inspiration • Leisure activities (USFWS estimates $32 billion + $85 billion (indirect) for U.S. birdwatchers alone*) * http://library.fws.gov/nat_survey2001_birding.pdf Biodiversity: Importance • Habitat for wildlife • Species diversity for future use • Carbon sequestration • Climate regulation • Pest control http://msnbcmedia4.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/070807/070807_frog _hmed_2p.hmedium.jpg Endemism • Endemic species are found in only a limited, specific location • Not widely distributed • Unique • Especially on islands Biodiversity Hotspots • Parts of the earth with very high species richness • Important for species conservation • ~25 areas; 1.4% of land surface but 35% of vertebrate species and 44% of higher plants Biodiversity Hotspots Biodiversity Hotspots Conservation Biology • Scientific study of biodiversity • Management of biodiversity • Preservation of biodiversity Biodiversity Prothonotary warbler, cerulean warbler, yellow-rumped warbler, blackburnian warbler Biodiversity Northern parula, ruby-crowned kinglet, yellow warbler, golden-winged warbler Biodiversity Kentucky warbler, American redstart, black-and-white blue warbler, palm warbler Biodiversity Black-throated green warbler, hooded warbler, common yellow-throat Biodiversity White-crowned sparrow, indigo bunting, rose-breasted grosbeak, white-throated sparrow Biodiversity Scarlet tanager, orchard oriole Biodiversity Peregrine falcon, wood duck Biodiversity • Species richness = number of species in a community • But not all species are equal: some are common, some are rare • Diversity indices reflect the rarity or commonness of species = relative abundance Biodiversity • How to measure abundance?...
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Lecture 20-IslesFragmenation - Biodiversity Endemism and...

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