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lecture+1+powerpoint+text+and+quotes - Course Business...

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Unformatted text preview: Course Business Course • Complete the pre-test on sakai (due by end of week) • Buy Field Notes from a Catastrophe Buy Field • Get readings and syllabus on sakai • Read the syllabus • Be ready for quizzes in lecture • Recitation starts week beginning Sept 12 • Tweet due week beginning Sept 12 “The Last of His Race” C M Russell Extinction Extinction • A set of facts we can know (“What?” set questions) questions) • A range of ideas answering Why? and range How? How? • Course structure = chronological And in this class…. And • Informed by the discipline of Anthropology Informed Anthropology • And various subdisciplines including evolutionary And anthropology anthropology • A challenge of the 21st century • Something which has meaning for people or Something people make meaning of people Today… Today… • Talk first about anthropological Talk perspectives & perspectives I bring to Extinction Extinction • Set the scene with some 21st century challenges challenges What is anthropology? “THE MOST HUMANISTIC OF THE THE SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THE MOST SCIENTIFIC OF THE HUMANITIES” SCIENTIFIC Four subfields: • Cultural anthropology • Linguistic anthropology • Archaeology Archaeology • Biological anthropology Biological Past (diachronic/across time) time) Biologica Evolutionary Evolutionary l Anthropology: Macroevolution Macroevolution (e.g., primate/hominin (e.g., evolution) evolution) Present (synchronic/across Present space) space) Evolutionary Evolutionary Anthropology: Microevolution (e.g., human population genetics, growth and development, behavioral ecology) ecology) Cultural Cultural/linguistic anthropology (e.g., economic, political, historical, psychological, medical, environmental, urban) urban) Archaeology Archaeology (e.g., evolutionary, pre(e.g., historic, historic) historic) Franz Boas - father of American anthropology • Doctorate in physics, Doctorate post-doctoral work in geography, studied anatomy with Virchow anatomy • Essence of human species Essence is tremendous variation in human form and activity Before Boas… Before • Orthogenesis and grand universals Franz Boas – What causes cultural variation? – environmental determinism vs culture and environmental history history – put another way, physical environment versus put history of migration and the diffusion of ideas history Boas’s Conclusions? Boas’s “Ethnological phenomena are the Ethnological result of the physical and psychical character of men, and of its development under the influence of the surroundings...” surroundings...” from The Principles of Ethnological Classification, 1887 from The Boas’s Conclusions? Boas’s “'Surroundings' are the physical 'Surroundings' conditions of the country, and the sociological phenomena, i.e., the relation of man to man.” relation from The Principles of Ethnological Classification, 1887 from The Boas’s Conclusions? Boas’s “Furthermore, the study of the present Furthermore, surroundings is insufficient: the history of the people, the influence of the regions through which it has passed on its migrations, and the people with whom it came into contact, must be considered” considered” from The Principles of Ethnological Classification, 1887 from The Some Vocabulary Some • historical particularism • cultural relativism Franz Boas - More Contributions • Empiricism (with skepticism of attempts to Empiricism formulate “scientific laws” of culture) formulate • Ethnographic fieldwork is essential • Cultural relativism as a methodological tool Cultural while conducting fieldwork while • Culture is fluid and dynamic • Study literate and non-literate societies in same Study way way So, what do cultural anthropologists do? So, ethnography, participant observation (among other things) Evolutionary Theory People (and Extinction) Scientific Method • More offspring will be produced than will More survive (drives competition) / “struggle for existence” (Inference 1) existence” Inference 2 • Individuals with favorable traits will have an Individuals advantage over others without those traits. • Survival is dependent on context • Those that survive will produce more Those offspring. offspring. Fitness Fitness • a measure of reproductive success • effect of characteristic on reproductive effect success success • An organism living half as long but have An twice as many grandchildren has twice the fitness the Scientific Method Scientific • The observation is…… -for example, lyrebirds have some amazing calls • Hypothesis (it might work this way) • Prediction (if it does work that way Prediction then…) then…) • Tests of hypotheses Global climate change Nuclear proliferation Biotechnological revolution Environmental degradation Exploding population growth ...
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