AdolF11Lecture10PostPDF

AdolF11Lecture10PostPDF - Office Hours • Mine: Tues 9-11...

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Unformatted text preview: Office Hours • Mine: Tues 9-11 or by appt – Tillett Hall, Rm 101 (Psych. Dept) • TA: Kris Mescher – Tues 11:00-1:00 – Tillett rm 629 – kmescher@eden.rutgers.edu 1 Friday, October 7, 2011 Prenatal Beginnings Adam Principle: Eve Principle: – Female as NOT hard and fast rules © L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Prenatal Beginnings: Very Simplified Version Until about 12th week of pregnancy, © L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Prenatal Beginnings: MALE – signals gonads to develop into – create burst of – – causes ridge to form into .internal development (Vas deferens, etc) produce : inhibits growth of L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Prenatal beginnings: Female – No • – No = no = no develop = No • External genitals – No = • L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 2 Sexes. MALE FEMALE – – – – – – – – L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Caster Semenya Gold medal winning runner (2009 world championships, 800 meters) “extremely masculine” according to complaints of competitors Sex testing ? 7 L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Maria Jose Martinez-Patino 1983 Sex testing: “certificate of femininity” 1985 tested again – – expelled, records erased – – 8 L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 …. not so clear-cut : a variety of conditions that lead to can involve – external – internal – sex – and/or , , , Up to 1 in babies born in US (very difficult to estimate) L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 …. not so clear-cut Intersex: a variety of conditions that lead to atypical development of physical sex characteristics can involve – external genitals, – internal reproductive organs, – sex chromosomes, – and/or sex-related hormones very difficult to estimate L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Examples of DSD Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) – Missing enzyme leads to overproduction of hormones in adrenals: masculinization of female’s genitalia 5-alpha-reductase deficiency – Low levels of an enzyme lead to incomplete masculinization of male’s genitalia Penile agenesis; vaginal agenesis – Penis/vagina fails to develop Klinefelter syndrome: XXY (1 in 1000 males) Turner syndrome: X0 (only one X) Chimera: different cells have different chromosomes (eg some XX; some XY) L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome X (genetically = ) : testosterone, MIH – MIH inhibits uterus, fallopian tubes on X malfunctions – Body cells are – has no effect • Genital ridge develops as • un-descended (internal) Labeled disorder) at birth (often no sign of L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 AIS continued During puberty – – : production increases increases too • develop • ; clear skin • unambiguously – First sign of problem: Diagnose with blood test; ultrasound – Hormone levels – Genetic makeup – Internal organs Friday, October 7, 2011 L. Dickson 2010 Where do we put the person with AIS? MALE FEMALE L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Cichlid Fish: Dominant Male L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Cichlid Fish: Non-dominant male L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Cichlid Fish Males Non-dominant male will fight for dominant (Alpha) status If non-dominant male wins: – – L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 After losing fight: Changes in Alpha Neurons of hypothalamic pulse generator – – Testes – – L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 After winning fight: Changes in non-dominant male Neurons of hypothalamic pulse generator – Testes – – L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Order of changes 1. Change in 2. Structural changes 3. Changes in 4. changes L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Epigenetic View Interaction between genes and environment Genes Environment Even in something so “basic” or “biological” as sex L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Gender Not the same Gender: Gender roles: L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Baby X experiments Videos of crying babies Labeled as “Boy” or “Girl” “ ” in “boys”; “ ” in girls L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Gender Identity Gender-role identity: Gender typing: L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 How do we come to know... whether we are a boy or a girl and what it means to be a boy or a girl L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Biology Genes? Hormones? L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 Socialization Who? – • • • – • – – L. Dickson 2010 Friday, October 7, 2011 ...
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