Types+variables+and+spuriousness - Variables concepts with...

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Variables - concepts with more than one category or varying degrees of magnitude e.g. social class, age, grade on exam, GPA, group size independent (or X variable) - the one occurring first in time and thought to be the one whose occurrence or change results in the occurrence or change in another variable dependent (or Y variable) - the one occurring second in time and thought to be the one changing in a regular pattern related to changes or occurrence of the independent variable Other Types of Variables - which are, in fact, independent variables - (called C for now) A. Antecedent - those occurring prior to either of the variables in a hypothesis yet having a part in the causal linkage. e.g. C leads to X leads to Y. B. Intervening - those occurring between the independent and dependent variables in a hypothesis. e.g. X leads to C leads to Y C. Extraneous - those occurring prior to the independent and dependent variables in a hypothesis when, in fact, the independent and dependent variables have no direct
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