LW-BCH4122-Lecture2_2011Sep

LW-BCH4122-Lecture2_2011Sep - Stem Cells Lisheng WANG...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Stem Cells Lisheng WANG lwang@uottawa.ca Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Lecture 2: Introduction of Stem Cells (Part II) What are stem cells Types of stem cells Some general concepts of stem cells
Background image of page 2
Some General Concepts of Stem Cells Stem cell fate Stem cell niche and environment Clonality Symmetric or asymmetric cell division to make a dual role of self-renewal and differentiation Cancer initiating/stem cells Stem cell and aging Epigenetic (reprogramming)
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Stem cell fate dedifferentiation
Background image of page 4
Example of transdifferentiation (plasticity) Hematopoietic (blood) stem cells Liver Neuron Muscle
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Stem cell Nature 441, 1075-1079 (29 June 2006) J Biomech. 2010 Jan 5;43(1):55-62 Stem cell niche and environment Cell-cell contact, •Cell-extracellular matrix contact Autocrine, paracrine and endocrine Structural and physical effects Neural regulation (endocrine)
Background image of page 6
Example: Physical factors control cell fate Science 2010 AUGUST 27; 329: 1078. Cell 2006; 126:645-647 & 677-689 Substrate elasticity is a potent regulator of MuSC fate in culture. During first week in culutre, soluble induction factors reprogram mesenchymal cells to specific lineages. After several weeks in culutre, the cells commitment to a lineage is specified by matrix elasticity.
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Clonality It is crucial to know whether a single cell is capable of developing an array of cell types (clonality), or whether multiple stem cell types, when grown together, are capable of forming multiple cell types. For instance, recent research has shown that a mixture of cells removed from fat tissue or umbilical cord blood are capable of developing into blood cells, bone cells, and perhaps others. However, Researchers have not shown that a single cell is responsible for giving rise to other cell types or, if so, what kind of cell it is.
Background image of page 8
Symmtric or asymmtric cell division – stem cell strategies to accomplish dual task of self-renewal and generation of differentiated cells Orange: stem cells; Green: differentiated cells (Nature 2006; 441:1068-1074. Genes Dev. 2009; 23:2675-2699)
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Stem cells can facultatively use both symmetric and asymmetric divisions (Nature 2006; 441:1068-1074. Genes Dev. 2009; 23:2675-2699) Early Embryonic Dev’t Late embryonic dev’t and healthy adult maintenance Symmetric and assymetric requried after injury Too much symetric= tumorigenesis Too much assymetric= reduced tissue repair
Background image of page 10
Sean J. Morrison & Judith Kimble Nature 441 , 1068-1074 (29 June 2006) Possible controls of asymmetric stem-cell division Asymmetric localization of cell polarity regulators. Segregation of cell fate determinants (red) to the cytoplasm Regulated orientation of the mitotic spindle retains only one daughter in the stem-cell niche (red) - Only daughter stem cells access to extrinsic signals for maintaining stem cell identity (b)Cell fate determinants: proteins and mRNA that can be associated with membrane, centrosome or cellular compoent (a) Polarity regulators: Proteins/lipids plasma membrane
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 10/09/2011 for the course BCH bch4122 taught by Professor Wang during the Spring '09 term at University of Ottawa.

Page1 / 33

LW-BCH4122-Lecture2_2011Sep - Stem Cells Lisheng WANG...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 12. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online