Hist 130 20th Century Africa 3

Hist 130 20th Century Africa 3 - 21:04...

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21:04 Political complexity (Colson) - Internal processes of modernization during the 19 th  century Balance of power during the 19 th  century between Africa and the West (Brooks) Processes of European intervention prior to 1885 Key question: What encouraged formal colonization? Why Colonize the Continent? Intrusion prior to 1885 - early examples - 16 th  century: Portuguese in Zambezi River valley - 1652: Dutch established Cape Town - presence of white settlers for 2 centuries - European exploration - David Livingstone - Henry Morton Stanley  - growth in knowledge enabled colonization - a scramble prior to Scramble - 1830: French invade Algiers - 1850s: French expansion along Senegal River - 1867, 1886: discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa - 1882: Great Britain occupies Egypt, Sudan, Somalia  (control over Suez Canal and Red Sea)
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- India - 1884: Germany declares its intentions for Namibia,  Tanzania,  Togo, Cameroon  Summary Point: European colonial intrusion already occurring prior to 1885.  Why Colonize the Continent? - political reasons - diplomatic competition over Africa - empire as sign of nation-state prestige - competition and desire for balance of power in Europe - need for global strategy - importance of global trade - importance of Asia (India, China) - decline in political control in Western Hemisphere Economic reasons - industrial revolution: need for resources, need for  markets - empire as a “free-trade” zone - greater (European) control over price of raw (African) materials - sell manufactured goods to colonized people - imperialism as “highest stage of capitalism” - Rosa Luxemburg, V. I. Lenin - imperialism as economically inevitable Cultural reasons
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- Social Darwinism - Europeans as “superior race” - Christianity and the “missionary impulse” - global dominance of Christian Europe as divinely sanctioned - “humanitarianism”: ending slavery Other Factors - epidemiological reasons  - malaria zone: prohibited European settlement - 1820: quinine developed as a medication - from bark of cinchona tree (Andes) - technological reasons - 1829: steam train - 1837: electrical telegraph - 1838: trans-Atlantic steamship - 1861, 1881: Gatling gun and Maxim gun - By 1885 there were technological innovations that enabled  colonization and better communication between Europe and  Africa. - ascendance of African power - empowerment through illegitimate trade and legitimate trade   - shift from economic treaties to political treaties I. Orientation—The Question of African Resistance - Why was African resistance initially unsuccessful?
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- issue of European technology and knowledge  - better military capability - issue of European material resources and capital
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This note was uploaded on 10/10/2011 for the course HIST 130 taught by Professor Lindsay during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Hist 130 20th Century Africa 3 - 21:04...

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