Hist 130 20th Century Africa 7

Hist 130 20th Century Africa 7 - ,economic,andpolitical...

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Important to recognize interconnections between cultural, economic, and political  realms. Gender roles must be considered as a factor in defining this realms of  history as well Africans actively appropriated Western cultural forms and used them for self  empowerment and eventually political critique. Such processes were determined  in part by gender Men and women participated differently Overall, gender must be understood as historically shaped and defined, not  biologically determined Gender roles changed: a shift existed from the “traditional” to the “modern” Questions How did the experience of colonization differ for men and women? How did European colonial initiatives seek to make modern African men and  women? To what extent did such initiatives reinforce pre-existing gender roles (e.g.  patriarchy)? To what extent did African men and women appropriate this initiatives to  empower themselves and/or change gender roles? Thinking about gender gender roles as culturally and historically defined biologically determined vs. socially constructed gendered roles: mother, wife, daughter, husband, father, brother, etc. social reproduction through biological reproduction beyond categories: gendered ideas and practies of care, responsibility European and African contrasts Western belief in rights of the “individual” empowered African men and women alike “modern” notion of a nuclear family
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marriage practices: against polygamy European and African similarities reinforced gender hierarchies women as subordinate to men men having greater agency practices of indirect rule reinforced customary laws and practice women as property exchanged for bride wealth through marriage women as producers producing children (for labor) reproducing households Summary Point: tensions over gender; gender flux. Modern and traditional  notions came into conflict Colonialism and Women’s Health: the Case of Uganda (Summers) 1907-24: British concern over reproduction of the population importance of demography (Iliffe) decline in population meant decline in labor productivity addressed disease (sleeping sickness and syphilis) 1900-20: 250,000 to 330,000 died of sleeping sickness syphilis as sexually transmitted disease (STD) medical problem and “moral” problem
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control over sexual behavior and promiscuity social “purity” campaigns colonial intervention at the level of individual  Concern for family and household reform motherhood 1918- Maternity training School African mothers viewed as incompetent increase reproduction through training midwives and maternal care Summary Point – the intimate,  gendered politics of colonialism. Social control  (by state and missions) at the individual level. 
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Hist 130 20th Century Africa 7 - ,economic,andpolitical...

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