Hist 130 20th Century Africa 9

Hist 130 20th Century Africa 9 - October 6, 2011...

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Unformatted text preview: October 6, 2011 Orientation: Reform before evolution A spectrum of organizations were established Youth, labor, regional, student, political Political solidarity was difficult to achieve in multi­racial , multi­etnic, class­based, rural­urban, gendered societies Key Questions How did South Africa fit into this continental fit? Importance of trade union activity Local economic context of rapic industrialization The birth of a modern industrial economy in less than 50 years Mining industry important Narrow economic basis: national economy dependent on minding industry Strength and weakness Politics shifting from rural to urban spaces Global context: the spread of Marxist ideas world­wide Bolshevik Rev of 1917 Arrival of such ideas through immigration to the Rand Key point: class politics played an important role in South Africa throughout the 20th century Split Labor Economy (Fredrickson) Legal restraints 1913 Natives Land Act Mine and Works Act of 1911 Formalized industrial color bar “split labor” economy white and black workers in competition for jobs skilled (higher pay) jobs reserved for whites; unskilled for black workers tensions between workers , business owners, and the South African Government white workers wanted jobs protected, did not want to compete with black workers industry preferred cheap workers, regardless of race disliked split labor economy: more expensive employed black workers because cheaper created more tensions state in between: wanted to please white workers (voters) but also business interests Summary Point: Regulating the economy can work against the “nature” of the economy, leading to tensions. In South Africa, these tensions centered on the racialization of the economy by law Trade Union Acitivism and the Question of Strategy Unions as a means to achieve better wages, work conditions, higher standard of living A means for black workers to fight the color bar Importance of the economy= the power of workers Going on strike had political consequences Important for South Africa: class politics provided an early opportunity for non=racial political front Marxism: race was a “false consciousness” Class exploitation mattered more People were organized along class lines Key Labor Organizations ICU Communist party of South Africa (CPSA) Founded in 1921 Syndey Bunting Inspired by Bolshevik Revolution First South African party with multi­racial membership James La Guma 1927 League Against Imperialism meeting “Native Republic” thesis racial tensions: white leadership in the CPSA Summary Point: Clas politics provided an early opportunity for both black nationalism and non­racial political front Labor Struggles and the Rise of Afrikaner Nationalism Rand Rebellion of 1922 Strike by white workers over wages and Job protection White workers struggling over economic conditions similar to black workers Economic downturn at the end of 1920 Black miners went on strikes without support of white labor Chamber of Mines sought to renegotiate the terms of split­labor economy 25000 white mineworkers went on strike took over Johannesburg put down violently by government fear of workers’ revolution similar to USSR 250 killed, 1000 injured, 1000 arrested, 4 leaders executed provided an opportunity for the conservative National Party to take control from ruling South African Party general dissatisfaction with brutality of strike­breakers white versus white violence government betrayal Importance of the 1924 Election National Party (JBM Hertzog) and Labour Party defeat South African Party (Jan Smuts) Legislation passed designed to ensure white worker privilege Industrial conciliation act of 1924: enabled mechanism for labor negotiation Wage Act of 1924: ensured higher wages for white workers Mind and Works Amendment Act of 1926: retrenched color bar of 1911 act 1927 Native administration Act re­established role of chiefs and customary law implementation of Natal­like system of indirect rule Summary: Class politics (job protection for whites) intersected with white (Afrikaner) nationalism Rise of Afrikaner Nationalism Conservative Hertzog government Imperial conference of 1926: greater independence for dominions South Africa distanced itself form the British Empire 1930: white women given franchise increased total white electorate the cultural realm Afrikaans installed as an official language in 1925 Civil service/ government jobs become bilingual Flag changed to reflect Afrikaner history (1928) Afrikaans nation anthm “Die Stem” (1934) Die Huisgenoot (magazine) and other Afreikaans­language publications 1938 centenary commemoration of Great Trek sponsored by Afrikaner Broederbond (1919) Apartheids’s Orgins (Dubow) cultural origins of apartheid ‘apartness’ intersection of race, culture, and religion 1933: Broederbond advocated “total mass segregation” 1936: “apartheid” introduced by students and teachers role of Dutch Reformed Church 1857: divided congregations Christian­nationalism: flexible, eclectic in its appropriation of racist ideas Hereditary notions of morality Separation of races as “natural” cultural differences Divinely sanctioned Summary: Apartheid as an idea was viewed as ‘acceptable’ because it was seen as “natural” Final Summaries: 1. Nationalism was not always progressive. In the case of South Africa, a conservative set of politics was established through interwar Afrikaner nationalism that would limit the rights of black South Africans until the 1990s Class SUMMARY: 1. Reform before revolution 2. A spectrum of organizations were established 3. Political solidarity was difficult to achieve in multi­racial, multi­ethnic, class­ based, rural­urban, gendered societies, i.e. modern societies Orientation Reform before revolution A spectrum of organizations were established Youth, labor, regional, student, political Political solidarity was difficult to achieve in multiracial, multi­ethnic, class­based, rural urban, gendered societies, i.e. modern societies Key Questions How did South Africa fir into this continental trend? How did race and class dynamics intersect with nationalism? Is nationalism always a positive political element? The importance of trade union activity local economic context of rapid industrialization the birth of modern industrial economy in less than 50 years mining industry important narrow economic basis: national economy dependent on mining industry strength and weakness politics shifting from rural to urban spaces global context: the spread of Marxist ideas world­wide Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 the arrival of such ideas through immigration to the Rand Key Point: Class politics played an important role in South Africa throughout the 20th century Split Labor Economy (Frederickson) legal restraints 1913 Natives land Act Mine and Works Act of 1911 formalized industrial color bar “split labor” economy white and black workers in competition for jobs skilled (higher pay) jobs reserved for whites; unskilled for black workers tensions between workers, business owners, and the South African government white workers wanted jobs protected, did not want to compete with black workers industry preferred cheap workers, regardless of race dislike split labor economy: more expensive employed black workers because cheaper created more tensions state in between: wanted to please white workers (voters) but also business interests Summary Point: regulating the economy can work against the nature of the economy, leading to tensions. In South Africa, these tensions centered on the racialization of the economy by law. Trade Union Activism and the Question of Strategy unions as a means to achieve better wages, work conditions, higher standard of living a means for black workers to fight the color bar Importance of the economy = power of workers Going on strike had political consequences Importance for South Africa: class politics provided an early opportunity for non­ racial political front Marxism: race was a “false consciousness” Class exploitation mattered more People were organized along class lines Key Labor Organizations ICU Communist Party of South Africa Founded in 1921 Sidney Bunting Inspired by Bolshevik Revolution first South African party with multi­racial membership James La Guma 1927 League Against Imperialism meeting “Native Republic” thesis racial tensions: white leadership in the CPSA Summary Point: Class politics provided an early opportunity for both black nationalism Labor Struggles and the Rise of Afrikaner Nationalism Rand Rebellion of 1922 strike by white workers over wages and job protection white workers struggling over economic conditions similar to black workers economic downturn at the end of 1920 black miners went on striker without support of white labor chamber of Mines sought to renegotiate the terms of split­labor 25,000 white mineworkers went on strike took over Johannesburg put down violently by government fear of workers revolution similar to USSR 250 killed, 1000 injured, 1000 arrested, 4 leaders executed provided an opportunity for the conservative National Party to take control from ruling South African Party general dissatisfaction with brutality of striker­breakers white versus white violence government betrayal The Importance of the 1924 Election National Party (JBM Hertzog) and Labour Party defeat South African Party (Jan Smuts) legislation passed designed to ensure white worker privilege industrial Conciliation Act of 1924: enabled mechanism for labor negotiation Wage Act od 1924: ensured higher wages for white workers Mine and Workers Amendment Act of 1926: retrenched color bar of 1911 act 1927 Native Administration Act re­established role of chiefs and customary law implementation of Natal­like systems of indirect rule Summary Point: Class politics (job protection for whites) intersected with white (Afrikaner) nationalism The Rise of Afrikaner Nationalism Conservative Hertzog government imperial Conference of 1926: greater independence for dominions South Africa distanced itself from the British Empire 1930: white women given franchise increased total white electorate the cultural realm Afrikaans installed as an official language in 1925 civil service/government jobs become bilingual flag changed to reflect Afrikaner history (1928) Afrikaans national anthem “Die Stem” (1934) Die Huisgenoot (magazine) and other Afrikaans­language publications 1938 centenary commemoration of Great Trek sponsored by Afrikaner Broederbond (1919) Apartheid’s Origins (Dubow) Cultural origins of apartheid “Apartness” intersection of race, culture, and religion 1933: Broederbond advocate “total mass segregation” 1936: apartheid introduced by students and teachers role of Dutch Reformed Church 1857: divided congregations Christian­nationalism: flexible, eclectic in its appropriation of racist ideas hereditary notions of morality separation of race as “natural” cultural differences divinely sanctioned Summary Point: Apartheid as an idea was viewed as “acceptable” because it was seen as “natural” Summary Points 1). Nationalism was not always progressive. In the case of South Africa, a conservative set of politics was established through interwar Afrikaner nationalism that would limit the rights of black South Africans until the 1990s. ...
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