ETX 10 - Lecture 2 9/27/10 Aspirin A Magic Bullet 1763...

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Lecture 2 – 9/27/10 Aspirin – A Magic Bullet 1763 – Willow Bark (Aspirin) Analgesic Anti-inflammatory Anti-pyretic (treats fever, lowers temperature) Salix (Salicylic acid) Problems include esophageal bleeding People usually take aspirin in doses of 325 mg Dose – Aspirin 325 mg Response Class 0 0 n/a 1 ↓ Plaque Therapeutic 2 Many + (Headaches) 10 Tinnitis/Bleeding Sublethal 100 Death Lethal Botox – A Deadly Poison? Botulinum Toxin = Clostridium Botulinum Toxic (High toxicity, low dose) “Botulism” – lungs/diaphragm – phrenic nerve (temporarily paralyzes the nerves) - Death by respiratory paralysis Oxygen – A Chronic Toxicant? Food + O 2 → Energy + CO 2 + H 2 O Some oxidants from Oxygen The Effects of Oxidants The less you eat, the fewer free radicals When ingesting anti-oxidants, you are clearing away the free radicals Scope of Modern Toxicology Study of adverse effects of chemicals Lecture 3 – 9/29/10 I. Natural Bioactive Compounds Chemicals found in nature that cause biochemical or physiological actions in organisms Phytotoxins – number one source for drugs; bioactive chemicals from plants Mycotoxins – bioactive chemicals from molds and fungi Phytotoxins/Mycotoxins are two main sources of drugs on the market today Common Natural Drug Types: Analgesics – cause temporary pain relief (aspirin, etc.) Narcotic analgesics – produce a sleep-like painless state (morphine, codeine, etc.)
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Anesthetics – block pain nerves (cocaine, etc.) Stimulants – stimulate activity (caffeine, nicotine, etc.) Sedatives – produce general sedation (alcohol, etc.) Antimicrobials – cure infectious diseases (penicillins, etc.) II. Mycotoxin Example – Ergot Alkaloids Produced by molds that infest stored grains (rye). Noted as far back as 600 BC by the Assyrians. Caused gangrenous and convulsive ergotism (St. Anthony’s Fire). Symptoms included convulsions, hallucinations, gangrene and spontaneous abortions. Used as a drug for migraines and abortions. Today – fumigants used to avoid mold growth. III. Mycotoxin Example – Penicillins Produced by fruit, bread and other food molds Possibly first used by Egyptians, Native Americans. Pasteur noted in late 1800s that molds ( Penicillium spp.) could kill bacteria. Fleming in 1928 discovered by accident that molds killed staphylococcus bacteria. Penicillin is recognized as an antibiotic Chain and Florey in late 1930s isolate the drug Useful against many types of infections – pneumonia, gangrene, gonorrhea, bone infections, etc. Early on, was expensively produced in broths The drug was extracted from patients’ urine for re-use Later was inexpensively mass produced Led to later discovery of others - cephalosporins, etc. An “internal pesticide”
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ETX 10 - Lecture 2 9/27/10 Aspirin A Magic Bullet 1763...

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