NAS 1 - 11/7/10 -Labels/Names Californios 1769-1848 1848 -...

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11/7/10 -Labels/Names Californios 1769-1848 1848 - Mexican-Am 1960s - Chicana/o 1980s, 90s, 2000s - Hispanic, Latino Name Pre-1492 – People 500+ 1492 – Indian 1960s – Native 1989 638 funding Canada- First Nations Metis – mixed blood/French/tribal/fur trade (1600s) Dine-Navajo 1997- Net Dine College Tohono Oodham – 1948 – Parago (felt hats) Ho-Chunk – 1994 – Winnebago -Who (or what) is a Native American? BIA (bureau of Indian affairs) – 1824 o “wards of the state” o Came into existence to look after “wards” o Had to come up with 3 criteria to be recognized as a Native American Tribal enrollment Have to meet a minimum blood quantum of ¼ or more (1986 Zarr decision – BIA acknowledged that it cannot be rigid about blood quantum.) Live on/near their respective home reservation (right now 75% of all Native Americans live off reservation) (1974 Ruiz v. Hickel – Supreme Court Case Legal o 1830s - 75,000 tribal members of the Five Tribes were moved to Oklahoma (they owned black slaves) o Most of the Five Tribes leaders teamed up with the Confederacy during Civil War because they owned black slaves o After Confederacy loss, Five Tribes leaders were punished – lost all their slaves
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o 1866 – thousands of African Americans became part of the Five Tribes due to historic circumstance
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Cultural o Iron Eyes Cody Full blood Italian-American Married to full blood Native American Adopted o Bing Crosby Entertainer of 1940s, 50s No tribal blood Duck Valley Reservations asked Bing to become a tribal because they needed money to feed their cattle. Gave Bing no restriction to hunt/fish in Duck Valley Reservation radius o Walter Mondale 1980s ran against Ronald Reagan for presidency Approached Chippewa tribe to attract Native American votes Full blood Norwegian-American 11/12/10 -Origins Bering Strait o First popularized in 1590 by the Spanish o Land bridge connected between Alaska and Siberia, disappeared near end of Ice Age o Incisor teeth o Straight black hair Ten Lost o Israel 1610
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o Old testament speaks of ten tribes; spectators say they left mid-east and sailed to the western hemisphere o 1775 – James Adair History of Indians o Jewish people believed in angels o Native Americans believed in spiritual entities o Ladder Day Saints (Mormons) o Nephites civilized people farmers kept records believed in God wore clothing light-skinned people o Lamanites savage warriors idol worshipers dark-skinned o Brigham Young University Pre-1950 Lack of Native American students (only one graduated) Post-1950 Earnest Wilkinson became new university president in 1951 Mass-scale recruitment of dark-skinned people Till 1984, 400 Native Americans graduated 500+ Native American Tribes o Cherokee Largest tribe in U.S. Most live in Oklahoma present-day
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This note was uploaded on 10/09/2011 for the course NAS 1 taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '08 term at UC Davis.

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NAS 1 - 11/7/10 -Labels/Names Californios 1769-1848 1848 -...

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