CH2 heredity PSYC 2076

CH2 heredity PSYC 2076 - CHILD PSYCHOLOGY PSYC2076 Fall...

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CHILD PSYCHOLOGY PSYC2076 – Fall 2009 Chromosomes, Genes, & Heredity Chromosomal syndromes & genetic disorders can have grave impact on child Most disorders/conditions (both psychological & medical) are believed to have a genetic component of some type The Process of Genetic Transmission Chromosomes and Genes o 23 chromosomes from each parent Homologous – father’s sperm o 46 chromosomes form new human being o Reproductive cells have only 23 chromosomes, undergoes cell division called meiosis o “Crossing over” creates genetic variability during meiosis o Mitosis occurs in autosomes and sex chromosomes Genes, DNA, and Proteins o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Binding element of a chromosome Nucleotide (nitrogen base) o Genes Chromosome’s DNA molecule Genes trigger production of proteins by DNA splitting and replicating Genetic Influences on Development Genes never work in isolation Understanding alleles: o Alleles are alternative forms of a gene Homozygous – alleles from both parents are the same for a specific gene or trait Heterozygous – alleles from both parents are different for a specific gene or trait Codominance pattern of two alleles Dominant allele Recessive allele Genes on the Sex Chromosomes: Exceptions to the Rule o Sex chromosomes XX for females, XY for males o Many X-linked genes are more common in males than females Hemophilia bleeding disorders in which it takes a long time for the blood to clot X-linked recessive allele XYY criminal predisposition Interactions Among Genes o Of interest: IQ, creativity, sociability, genius
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o Modifier genes have indirect effect on expressions of other genes Genetic Disorders o Genes can have positive and negative effects on development o Why harmful alleles survive (i.e., PKU) Chromosome Abnormalities Two Types 1) Numerical- aneuploidy- abnormal # chromosomes (chrom.) occur individuals missing chrom. Or has two chromosomes. Of pair chromosomes ( trisomy, tetrasomy,etc) Down syndrome, Truner syndrome 2) Structural –chromosomes structured altered ex: Wolf Hirschorn syndrome and Jacobsen syndrome Structural Abnormalities Can take several forms: Deletions – portion chromosomes Missing or deleted Duplications
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CH2 heredity PSYC 2076 - CHILD PSYCHOLOGY PSYC2076 Fall...

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