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CH10 thru 13 PSYC 2076 - PSYC 2076 Test#4 Chapter 10...

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PSYC 2076 Test #4 Chapter 10: Emotional Development Emotions: A Developmental Approach Emotions are subjective reactions to experience that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes o Non-organic failure to thrive: body shuts down to environmental factors for development (height and weight stop) o Depend on consciousness Human beings are aware of how the feel o Are subjective (individuals own perspective) o Perform protective functions Communicate needs, intentions, desires Reactions of fear and surprise; mobilize action in emergencies o Closely tied to other aspects of development Promotes exploration and cognitive development Early Emotional Development - First Signs of Emotion Crying o Hunger cry : a rhythmic cry, which is not always associated with hunger o Angry cry : a variation of the rhythmic cry, in which excess air is forced through the vocal cords o Pain cry : a sudden onset o loud crying without preliminary moaning, sometimes followed by holding the breath o Frustration cry : two or three drawn-out cries, with no prolonged breath-holding o Can you “spoil” a baby? If a baby if frustrated, he may learn to calm himself/herself down earlier, deal with minor issues on his/her own o If responding is delayed too often, an inability to control own emotions may develop (if crying escalates to often) Smiling and laughing o Involuntary smiles: earliest smiles occur spontaneously after birth, a result of subcortical nervous system activity Become less frequent during the first three months o Waking smiles Elicited by mild sensations, such as gentle juggling or blowing in the infant’s skin 2nd week may smile after a feeding 3rd week may smile when alert and paying attention to caregiver’s voice o One month smiles become more frequent and more social Second month smile at visual stimulation more often Forth month an infant may laugh
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When Do Emotions Appear? Basic emotions: signs of contentment, interest and distress o During the next six months emotional states differentiate into true motions: joy, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, and fear Emotions involving the self o Self-conscious emotions ( embarrassment, empathy, envy) Self-awareness: the cognitive understand of identity; separate from the world (15-24 months) o Self-evaluative emotions: by 3: pride, shame, and guilt Empathy : Feeling what others feel o Sympathy : understanding another’s feelings or position o Prosocial behavior : altruistic; socially acceptable o Social cognition : factor of empathy; knowing others have emotions or mental states Brain Growth and Development Four major shifts in brain organization 1. Cerebral cortex : responses are less reflexive as cortex matures 2. Frontal lobes interact with the limbic system , which is primarily responsible for emotional reactions 3. Myelination of the frontal lobes , which coincide with greater physical mobility and exploratory behavior 4. Hormonal changes in the autonomic nervous system are
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