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Unformatted text preview: Educational Psychology Mid Term Study Guide Chapter One Educational Psychology Research Methods Why is research important? To improve knowledge and find which method is best. What is scientifically based knowledge? Scientifically based knowledge involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to educational activities and programs. • Scientifically-based knowledge is: – Objective – Rules out alternative explanations – Involves direct measurement – Reliable and valid • Scientifically based knowledge is not : – Commonsense (“the problem with commonsense is that it’s not so common”) – Pseudoscience (4 out of 5 dentists recommend Crest) – Nonscience (My Aunt Sarah said it worked for her kids) – Nonsense (Facilitated Communication/Re-birthing/Perceptual-Motor Training/Floor time) Progression of Scientific Knowledge Exploratory Research ↓ Confirmatory Research ↓ Generalization Research (taking research to scale = something that all people can implement) Example: Aspirin Study Exploratory Research Correlation between taking aspirin and decreased heart disease ↓ Confirmatory Research Randomized clinical trial examining the relationship btw taking aspirin and heart disease ↓ Generalization Research Train real world physicians to prescribe aspirin as daily regimen and examine prevalence of heart disease Basic vs. Applied Research • Basic research – theory-driven, hypothesis-testing science driven by a quest for fundamental understanding or knowledge development – May or may not address a practically important question or have real world implications Example: Examine the processes by which children retain facts or bits of information Example: Test alternative theories that explain hyperactivity in rats • Applied research – is motivated more by a desire to solve practical problems and to move the fruits of our scientific labor into the real world Example: Teaching 3rd Grade students struggling with math to retain basic calculation facts Example: Examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions to address the hyperactivity of kindergarten students Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research • Qualitative research – Subjective interpretation – Human behavior is too complex to represent with numbers – Researcher is the instrument – Words or verbal description represent phenomena • Quantitative research – Objective interpretation – Human behavior is capable of being measured and quantified – Formal instruments created by researcher for objective measurement – Numbers represent phenomena The Scientific Method FACT: an idea or action that can be verified Examples of facts: • names and dates of important activities • population of the United States in the latest census • death and taxes (Ben Franklin) CONCEPT: a rule that allows for categorization of events, places, people, ideas, etc....
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- Spring '10
- researcher, Theory of cognitive development