final study guide - STUDY GUIDE FINAL EXAM Spring 2011 Know...

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STUDY GUIDE FINAL EXAM Spring 2011 Know what a conditioned stimulus and response, an unconditioned stimulus and response, and a neutral stimulus are. (Reference Pavlov/Skinner) - Conditioned stimulus : previously neutral stimulus - Conditioned response : response to conditioned stimulus - Unconditioned stimulus : a stimulus that produces an automatic physiological response - Unconditioned response : the automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus - Neutral stimulus : A stimulus that does not have an automatic response What is Operant Conditioning? What is Classical Conditioning? - Operant conditioning : Learning by consequences, Involves behavior that is selected by its consequences; the consequences of behavior produce changes in the future likelihood of behavior - Classical conditioning : Learning by pairing, theory of respondent conditioning, learning by association or pairing, conditioned reflexes What is the Premack principle and why is it important to education? - Premack Principle – “know as grandma’s rule,” states that reinforcing activities can be used to increase participation in less reinforcing activities - Examples: If you complete the assignment, the entire class will get to play outside/ clean your room, then you get to have someone over/ if you get >80% in this class, you can opt out of taking the final Know the different types of reinforcement and the different types of punishment. - Positive reinforcement : behaviors that result in contact with pleasant or preferred experiences - Negative reinforcement : behaviors that lead to avoidance of, or escape from, unpleasant or non-preferred experiences - Positive punishment : behaviors that result in unpleasant or non-preferred experiences - Negative punishment : behaviors that lead to loss, cessation, or reduction of pleasant or preferred experiences Study the different types of play related to child development. - Solitary Play : occurs alone, often with toys, and is independent of what other children are doing - Parallel Play : children engage in the same activity side by side but with very little interaction or mutual influence - Associative Play : much like parallel play but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turn taking, and general interest in what others are doing - Cooperative Play : children join together to achieve a common goal What is evidence-based practice in education and how is it used? - Involves selecting and delivering services that have been demonstrated scientifically to improve student outcomes - Strategies that are supported by scientific research are chosen over strategies that lack such support - Example: Surgeon A uses a procedure that results in a mortality rate of 20% (Uses it because he likes it, it’s easy, trained on it, is cool). Surgeon B uses a procedure that
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results in a mortality rate of 5% (Uses it because research demonstrates it’s the best procedure available, although it’s not easy to do and had to be trained in it) Know the various types of experimental designs and the differences between them. Know
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final study guide - STUDY GUIDE FINAL EXAM Spring 2011 Know...

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